In vitro Antioxidant Activity of Ethanolic Extracts of Celosia argentea aerial parts, fresh fruits of Fragaria vesca, Tamarindus indica, Psidium guajava, Zizyphus mauritiana.

 

Mahadik S.U.*, Jagtap V.N, Oswal H., Kumawat N. and Kothari R.

M.C.E. Society’s Institute of Pharmacy, Azam Campus ,Camp, Pune. Maharashtra.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: mahadiksu@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

The present investigation deals with antioxidant activities of the ethanolic extract of Celosia argentea aerial parts, fresh fruits of Fragaria vesca, Tamarindus indica, Psidium guajava, Zizyphus mauritiana. The effects of ethanolic extracts of all the herbs were studied via reducing power estimation method. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were compared with standard i.e., of ascorbic acid. The equal amount of extract and ascorbic acid combinations were also studied to understand the synergistic effect of ascorbic acid with the extracts if used in any pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations. The individual antioxidant activity of Zizyphus mauritiana, Tamarindus indica, Psidium guajava, Fragaria vesca and Celosia argentea were found to be 20.35±0.12, 24.48±0.28, 15.63±0.48, 14.74±0.52%, 29.43±1.80 respectively indicating antioxidant activity to all ethanolic extracts. C. argentea exbiting the highest activity (p<0.05). The combined antioxidant activity (ascorbic acid with extracts) showed   additive synergistic effect 61.65 ± 0.452, 198.52±0.645, 78.76±0.850, 58.99±0.740, 139.23±231 respectively with each extract compared to the standard. These studies suggest that the ethanolic extract of above herbs can significantly be used as natural antioxidants alone or in combination with ascorbic acid.

 

KEYWORDS: Celosia argentea, Fragaria vesca, Tamarindus indica, Psidium guajava, Zizyphus mauritiana, antioxidant activity, Ascorbic acid

 


INTRODUCTION:

Antioxidant means “against oxidation.”  An Antioxidant is any substance that retards or prevents deterioration, damage or destruction by reactive oxygen species, such as singlet oxygen, superoxides, hydroxy radicals etc. Various environmental exposures such as pollution, tobacco smoke; the sun's ultraviolet light and radiation create free radicals 1. A free radical is a compound with one or more unpaired electrons in its outer orbital .Such unpaired electrons make these species very unstable and therefore quite reactive with other molecules due to the presence of unpaired electron(s) and they try to pair their electron(s) and generate a more stable compound3.

 

Our body also generates free radicals as by-products of burning fuel for energy within the cells, exercising and vanishing off infections. An imbalance between antioxidants and reactive oxygen species results in oxidative stress, which leads the cellular damage.

 

This long-term damage occurs as a result of skin irritations or allergic reactions such as hives and itchy rashes as well as continuous aging of the skin. Naturally occurring antioxidants like alpha carotene, ascorbic acids (Vitamin C), flavone and flavanone have ability to donate electrons and stop free radical chain reactions2, 7. Many plants, citrus fruits and leafy vegetables as source of ascorbic acid, vitamins E and phenolic compounds, possess the ability to reduce the oxidative damage. This oxidative damage are associated with many diseases like ultra violet radiations induced dermal cancer, cardiovascular disease, cataracts, atherosclerosis, diabetes, arthritis, immune deficiency diseases and ageing6. Antioxidants work to protect lipids from peroxidation by radicals Antioxidants are effective because they are willing to give up their own electrons to free radicals. When a free radical gains the electron from an antioxidant it no longer needs to attack the cell and the chain reaction of oxidation is broken5. L-Ascorbic acid shows the antioxidant activity and due to this activity there are many poly herbal formulations containing L-Ascorbic acid as antioxidant (0.2-4%) are available in market for antiaging, antioxidants, cosmeceutical in form of lotions, creams, sun care products and shampoos etc. for enhancement of the body's resistance to an assortment of diseases, including infectious disorders and many types of cancer 4.Inside the cell water soluble antioxidant scavengers are present. These include vitamin C, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase SD, and catalase. The vitamins C and E are thought to protect the body against the destructive effects of free radicals. Vitamin C, the most abundant water-soluble antioxidant in the body acts primarily in cellular fluid of particular note in combating free-radical formation caused by pollution and cigarette smoke. Vitamin E is considered the most potent chain breaking antioxidant within the membrane of the cell5,3 .

 

The aim of present investigation was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of different herbal extracts alone or in combination with ideal antioxidant ascorbic acid to replace synthetic chemical compound totally or partially from existing pharmaceutical and cosmetic formulations, which ultimately reduce side effects of chemical after long period of use. The herbs selected for present investigation were Celosia argentea aerial parts, fresh fruits of Fragaria vesca, Tamarindus indica, Psidium guajava, Zizyphus mauritiana.

The herbs used in present investigation possesses different activities e.g., antioxidant,antimitotic ,hipatoprotective, antidysentric, antiproliferative, photoprotective, antiaging, antiinflammatory, and in jaundice etc. In the present study antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of Celosia argentea aerial parts, fresh fruits of Fragaria vesca, Tamarindus indica, Psidium guajava, Zizyphus mauritiana  were evaluated using ascorbic acid as standard. Combinations of ascorbic acid to above extracts in equal amount are used to know synergistic activity via reducing power model.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Materials and Instruments:

All the fresh fruits of Fragaria vesca, Tamarindus indica, Psidium guajava, Zizyphus mauritiana, were procured from authentic vanya aushdhi distributor of Pune, (Maharashtra) India. C. argentea aerial parts were collected from Ahmednagar , (Maharashtra ) India and authenticated from the Botanical survey of India, Pune  Trichloroacetic acid, potassium ferricyanide, ethanol, L-ascorbic acid and ferric chloride all were of analytical grade. Laboratory centrifuge (RM-12C DX, Remi) and UV spectrophotometer (UV Visible spectrophotometer, Jasco) were used for the present study.

 

Preparation of Extract:

Plant materials were cleaned to remove the dirt and extra genus material. The dried aerial parts of C. argentea were made to a coarse powder (particle size ~0.25 mm) using a laboratory mill separately .Known quantity of powdered drug (250 g) extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (1000 mL, 85% v/v) at 60-70°C for 8 h by continuous hot extraction method. All the other fresh minced fruit ( Fragaria vesca, Tamarindus indica, Psidium guajava, Zizyphus mauritiana) parts were extracted with hydroalcoholic mixture (1000 mL, 85% v/v) using cold maceration process according to Indian pharmacopoeia process M for 8 h (Indian Pharmacopoeia, 1985). To make concentrate and dried extracts (volume reduced to seven times of actual), the solvent was evaporated under reduced pressure  at 50±5°C for 5-15 min and extracts were dried and actual percent yields were calculated from the obtained mass and initial powdered drug 1.

 

Antioxidant Activity by reducing power method:

The relative reducing activity in terms of antioxidant activity of extracts was determined by using individual extracts (5 mg) as well as its combination with equal amount of ascorbic acid. The extracts and ascorbic acid were dissolved separately in 1.0 mL of deionized water with phosphate buffer (2.5 mL, 0.2 M, pH 6.6) and 1% potassium ferricyanide (2.5 mL). The mixture was incubated at 50°C for 20 min. Aliquots of trichloroacetic acid (2.5 mL, 10% w/v) were added to the mixture and centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 min. The upper layer of solution (2.5 mL) was mixed with distilled water (2.5 mL) and a freshly prepared FeCl3 solution (0.5 mL, 0.1%). The absorbance was measured at 700 nm by making 500 μg mL-1 extracts aliquot. Increased absorbance of the reaction mixture indicated increased antioxidant activity via reducing power with reference to equal amount of standard ascorbic acid1. Similar procedure was repeated to know combination antioxidant power of extracts with ascorbic acid.

 

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

The individual antioxidant activity of Zizyphus mauritiana, Tamarindus indica, Psidium guajava, Fragaria vesca and  Celosia argentea were found to be 20.35±0.12, 24.48±0.28, 15.63±0.48, 14.74±0.52%, 29.43±1.80 respectively indicating antioxidant activity to all ethanolic extracts, C. argentea exhibiting the highest activity (p<0.05). The combined antioxidant activity (ascorbic acid with extracts) showed additive synergistic effect as i.e., 61.65±0.452, 198.52±0.645, 78.76±0.850, 58.99±0.740, 139.23±231 respectively with each extract compared to the standard.

 


 

 

Table 1: Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts

Aliquots

Abs.(700mm)

AOA%

Abs. with A.A.(700mm)

CombinationAOA%

Ascorbic acid

0.439±0.00

100.00

 

 

Zizyphus mauritiana

0.061±0.00

20.35±0.12

0.21±0.00

61.65±0.452

Tamarindus indica

0.063±0.00

24.48±0.28

0.67±0.00

198.52±0.645

Psidium guajava

0.053±0.00

15.63±0.48

0.26±0.00

78.76±0.850

Fragaria vesca

0.046±0.00

14.74±0.52

0.20±0.00

58.99±0.740

Celosia argentea

0.077±0.00

29.43±1.80

0.47±0.00

139.23±231

AOA = Antioxidant activity; AA = Ascorbic acid; Values = Mean±SD; n = 3; p<0.05

 


From the Table 1 it can be seen that the all-ethanolic extracts showed the antioxidant activity, the highest activity is observed with C. argentea (29.43±1.80), while Fragaria vesca extract showed only 14.74±0.52% as compare to standard. The antioxidant activity of Zizyphus mauritiana, Tamarindus indica,and Psidium guajava extract showed 20.35±0.12%, 24.48±0.28% and 15.63±0.48% respectively, are comparatively higher than Fragaria vesca, this may be due to the alcoholic soluble phytochemicals such as flavonoids, , ellagic acid, cardiac glycosides, polyphenols, saponins, tannins, L-ascorbic acid citric acid , (+)-catechin; (-)-epicatechin naringenin, b-sitosterol, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-glucopyranoside and morin present in the prepared alcoholic extracts of Zizyphus mauritiana, Tamarindus indica,and Psidium guajava. The highest antioxidant activity of C. argentea might be due to presence of the phenolic compounds, tannic, flavonoids and     vitamin C contents than other selected fruits extracts. The synergistic power of ascorbic acid was observed with combination of equal amount of each extract, which showed additive synergism in case of all the extracts.

 

CONCLUSION:

It was found that all the extracts have the potential to be further developed as effective antioxidant agents for skin cosmetics preparations. These finding can be applicable especially in extensively used herbal cosmetic formulations, where only synthetic chemicals are using as an antioxidant to the skin care products such as skin whitening, antiaging and antiscares agent. These natural antioxidants alone or in combination with synthetic chemical antioxidants may produce multiple benefits on skin. Such natural antioxidant containing formulations can contribute in the management of different kinds of diseases as well as for the management of skin care by reducing side effects after long period use of chemical antioxidants.

 

REFERENCES:

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2.        Bajpai M.A, Pande S.K. Tiwari and Prashad D. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of some food and medicinal plants .International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 4;2005:287-291

3.        Bhuiyan A.R, Hoque M.Z. and Hossain S.J. Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Zizyphus mauritiana World Journal of Agricultural Sciences ,5 (3); 2009 :318-322

4.        Chaudhary, R.K. Emblica cascading antioxidants :novel natural skin care ingredients .Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin physiology,15;2002.:374-380

5.        Dekkers, J. C., van Doornen L. J. P. and Han C. G. Kemper. The Role of Antioxidant Vitamins and Enzymes in the Prevention of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage. Sports Medicine, 21;1996:213-238,

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Received on 23.08.2011          Modified on 08.09.2011

Accepted on 11.09.2011         © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 4(11): Nov. 2011; Page 1782-1784