An Update- Prominent Wound Healing Property of Indigenous Medicines

Nilesh Gupta and U.K. Jain*

Bhopal Institute of Technology and Science-Pharmacy Bhojpur Road, Bangrasia, Bhopal (M.P.), 462045, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: ukjain65@gmail.com, nilesh_gupta75@yahoo.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Wound a clinical entity is as old as mankind, often possesses problems in clinical practice. Naturally the investigative curiosity to promote the healing continues since ages. A lot of research has been envisaged to develop the better healing agents and it has been a challenging task to generate them and keep up the pace with problems encountered. Several drugs of plant, mineral, and animal origin are described in the Ayurveda for their wound healing properties. Most of these drugs are derived from plant origin. Some of these plants have been screened scientifically for the evaluation of their wound healing activity in different pharmacological models. Some Ayurvedic medicinal plants namely, Argemone mexicana, Boerhaavia diffusa, Catharanthus roseas, Diospyros cardifolia, Eclipta alba, Ficus religiosa, Hypericum perforatum, Lawsonia inermis, Merremia tridentate, and Swertia chirata, were found to be effective in experimental models. The rapidity of wound healing depends to a considerable extent on the contraction that begins a few days after injury and continues for a several weeks. In the present review attempts are made to understand various aspects of wound healing in terms of percentage closure of wound, period of complete epithelialization, tensile strength, histopathology, weight of granuloma in different wound models.

 

KEYWORDS: Ayurvedic medicinal plants, wound healing, wound pharmacology.

 


INTRODUCTION:

Whether acute or chronic, wounds can compromise an individual’s wellbeing, self-image, working capacity, and independence1. These financial, social, and physical implications suggest that good wound management is necessary not only for the individual, but also for the community. While appropriate wound management by qualified healthcare professionals is an integral part of treatment success, dressing choice and specification is equally important. As previously argued, wound-healing agents should adhere to certain specifications. It has been suggested that these agents should facilitate granulation and collagen formation; promote normal immunity; debride wound slough and necrotic tissue; minimize microbial colonization; alleviate pain; and facilitate angiogenesis and tissue perfusion2. From a clinical perspective, an ideal wound dressing should also be cost-effective, produce minimal patient discomfort, and be easily applied and removed.

 

However, few dressings satisfy all these criteria, although many therapies from the field of complementary and alternative medicine, particularly plant extracts, come close to resembling an ideal wound-healing agent. Such agents include Aloe vera, Calendula officinalis, Centella asiatica, Echinacea perpurea, Hypericum  perforatum, and Symphytum officinalis3.

 

Of these plants, traditional and laboratory evidence points toward the selected plants possessing the wound healing activity as being the most favorable wound healing extract to date4.  Wound is defined simply as the disruption of the cellular and anatomic continuity of a tissue. Wound may be produced by physical, chemical, thermal, microbial or immunological insult to the tissue5. The process of wound healing consists of integrated cellular and biochemical events leading to reestablishment of structural and functional integrity with regain of strength of injured tissue. Clinically, one often encounters non-healing, under-healing or over healing.   

 

Therefore the aim of treating a wound is to either shorten the time required for healing or to minimize the undesired consequences6. Attention should be directed towards discovering an agent, which will accelerate wound healing either when it is progressing normally7, or when it is suppressed by various agents like corticosteroids8, anti-neoplastics9, or non- steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Medical treatment of wound includes administration of drugs either locally (topical) or systemically (oral or parenteral) in an attempt to aid wound repair10. The topical agents used include antibiotics and antiseptics11, desloughing agents (chemical debridement, e.g. hydrogen peroxide, eusol and collagenase ointment12, wound healing promoters (e.g. Tretinoin, Aloe vera extract, Apis mellifera, Symphytum officinalis, benzoyl peroxide, Anthemis nobilis, extract, dexpanthenol, tetrachlordecaxide solution, clostebol acetate and the experimental cytokines. Various growth factors like platelet derived growth factor, macrophage derived growth factor, monocyte derived growth factor  etc. are necessary for the initiation and promotion of wound healing. Many substances like tissue extracts13, vitamins and minerals and a number of plant products have been reported by various workers, to possess pro-healing effects. Wound healing herbals encourage blood clotting, fight infection and accelerate the healing of wounds14.

 

Various activity play important role in wound healing

Anti-inflammatory activity: The acute inflammatory response during the early stages of injury generates factors that are essential for tissue growth and repair15. When prolonged, however, chronic inflammation can be detrimental, preventing wound remodeling and matrix synthesis, leading to delays in wound closure and an increase in wound pain16. Thus, it is plausible that an anti-inflammatory effect could facilitate wound healing and improve patient comfort. Although traditional texts and animal studies indicate that extract exerts an anti-inflammatory effect17-19.

 

Antioxidant effect: The production of free radicals at or around the wound bed may contribute to delays in wound healing through the destruction of lipids, proteins, collagen, proteoglycan, and hyaluronic acid. Agents that demonstrate significant antioxidant activity may, therefore, preserve viable tissue and facilitate wound healing20.

 

Antimicrobial activity: Wound healing can also be delayed when microorganisms are present in large enough numbers21. Therefore, reducing the bacterial load of a wound may be necessary to facilitate wound healing, as well as reduce local inflammation and tissue destruction. An ideal agent for the prevention and control of wound infection would therefore be one that directly destroys pathogens, while also stimulating immune activity22.

 

Analgesic activity: Given that open wounds can generate pain and subsequent disability, it is important that the dressing applied does not increase pain, and if possible, lessens pain.

 

Wound Healing Management:

The most important clinical endpoint in wound management is wound closure or 100% epithelialization23. Given that wound closure is critically important; it is argued that any agent demonstrating significant wound-healing activity should be seriously considered in conventional practice. Wound healing agent may facilitate wound healing by increasing both wound angiogenesis and collagen, nucleoprotein, and glycoprotein metabolism24-25, leading to improvements in both local circulation and granulation tissue formation26. Several experimental studies lend support to these claims demonstrating that the daily application of a wound healing agent to paravertebral incisions in rats facilitates collagen maturation and epithelialization within 10 to 25 days27-28.  In a poorly defined trial of 50 patients with slowly healing wounds and amputation stumps, treatment with a topical wound healing agent preparation for an unknown period was examined. The trial found wound granulation appeared with in several days of initiating the treatment, and secondary skin development had occurred within 10–14 days29.

 

Medicinal Plants and their Role in Wound Healing:

Plants and their extracts have immense potential for the management and treatment of wounds. The phyto-medicines for wound healing are not only cheap and affordable but are also purportedly safe as hyper sensitive reactions are rarely encountered with the use of these agents. These natural agents induce healing and regeneration of the lost tissue by multiple mechanisms. However, there is a need for scientific validation, standardization and safety evaluation of plants of the traditional medicine before these could be recommended for healing of the wounds. Plants or chemical entities derived from plants need to be identified and formulated for treatment and management of wounds. In this direction a number of herbal products are being investigated at present. Various herbal products have been used in management and treatment of wounds over the years. A few plants/plant products with promise are discussed in this paper.

 

Aloe veraAloe, a native to Africa, is also known as “lily of the desert” or the plant of immortality. Its name was derived from the alloeh meaning “bitter” because of the bitter liquid found in its leaves. Egyptians recorded use of this herbal plant in treating burns, infections and parasites as early as 1500 B.C.. Its clear gel has a dramatic ability to heal wounds, ulcers and burns by forming a protective coating on the affected areas and speeding up the healing process. The fresh plant contains 96% of water and rest is essential oil, amino acids, minerals, vitamins, enzymes and glycoproteins. Various constituents of Aloe vera have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity. They also stimulate wound healing. Some clinical reports suggest topical Aloe vera gel is useful in healing minor burns and that such application of the gel is harmless as hypersensitive reactions to it are rare. However, in some severe burns, Aloe gel may actually impede healing30.

 

Lantana camara: Lantana camara Linn, a shrub native of tropical America has completely been naturalized in many parts of India as an ornamental plant. The plant has abortificient, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. The hydro-alcoholic extract and fresh juice of leaves have favoured wound contraction31.

 

Hypericum perforatum: Hypericum perforatum is a bushy perennial plant with numerous yellow flowers. It is native to many parts of the world including Europe and the United States. It has an age old history of safe and effective usage in many folk and herbal remedies. The blossoms have been used in folk medicine to relieve patients suffering from ulcers, gastritis, diarrhea and nausea. This plant has an antiseptic action, relieves inflammation and promotes healing when used externally on cut surfaces of the body. The tincture of Hypericum spp. when given orally has a remarkable effect in lacerated and suppurated wounds with restoration of tissue vitality32. Pro-healing action of Hypericum spp. tincture is evidenced by enhanced epithelization phase with an increase in wound contraction rate and granulation tissue breaking strengths.

 

Tridax procumbensThe plant is a native of tropical America and naturalized in tropical Africa, Australia and Asia including India. Leaf of Tridax procumbens mainly contains crude protein (26%), crude fiber (17%), soluble carbohydrate (39%) and calcium oxide (5%)33.  The juice of the leaves of this plant is used by villagers to arrest bleeding from cuts and bruises in animals. This juice accelerates two phases of healing namely epithelization and collagenization, however it retards scar formation and granulation. Tridax procumbens antagonized anti-epithelization and tensile strength depressing effect of dexamethasone without affecting its anti-contraction and anti-granulation action34. The effect of various extracts (whole plant extract, aqueous extract, butanol extract and ether fraction) of this plant has been studied in dead space wound models. Compared to various extracts, the whole plant extract has the greatest pro-healing activity with increase in tensile strength and lysyl oxidase activity. Aqueous extract was also effective in increasing lysyl oxidase but to a lesser degree13. Leaf extracts of this plant also promote wound healing in both normal and immuno-compromised (steroid treated) rats in dead space wound model. The plant increased not only lysyl oxidase but also, protein and nucleic acid content in the granulation tissue, probably as a result of increase in glycosamino glycan content35.

 

Chromolaena odorata: Chromolaena odorata was first identified in Central America and Vietnam. The aqueous extract and the decoction from leaves of this plant have been used throughout Vietnam for the treatment of soft tissue wounds and burn wounds. Aqueous extracts of Chromolaena odorata enhances hemostatic activity and stimulates granulation tissue and re-epithelization processes36. The extract also inhibits wound contraction reversibly. Therefore, the plant can be of much therapeutic value in minimizing post burn scar contracture and deformities37.

 

Helianthus annus: An ornamental annual herb, with erect, rough and hairy stem is common in Indian Gardens in swampy areas. In traditional medicine the plant is used by tribals for inflammation of eyes, sores, dysuria, colic, tiger bites and bone fractures38. In a study the alcoholic extract of whole plant of a Helianthus annus applied in the form of an ointment on the excised wound of rat led to a significant reduction in total healing period. This has been confirmed by histology where earlier appearances of fibroblasts were seen. Early appearance and higher accumulation of muco-polysaccharides has been stated as indicators of hastened repair39.

 

Jasminum auriculatum: A small herb found in south India and the western peninsula. The alcohol free defatted extract of Jasminum auriculatum leaves has been reported to contain lupeol and jasmine40. Juice of leaves of Jasminum  auriculatum has been shown to be beneficial in wound healing. The juice when applied in the form of jelly, locally on linear uniform excised wound in rats is found to promote wound healing. This has been assessed by histological, biochemical and contraction rate studies. Fresh juice of the leaves showed an increase and early gain of the tensile strength in the linear wounds in rats. The study indicated that collagenation contributed to improved tensile strength in the early phase of healing41. Ghee medicated with Jasminum auriculatum, on topical application accelerated the healing time of second degree burn wounds in rats up to six days. The mucopolysaccharide accumulation was significantly higher in group treated with medicated ghee42.      

 

Ginkgo biloba: Ginkgo biloba (Salisburia aduantifolia) is also known as maiden hair tree. The genus ginkgo originated 200 million years ago and is considered as a living fossi43. Extracts of leaves have been used therapeutically for centuries44. Ginkgo biloba exhibits a variety of interesting pharmacological activities such as increase in blood fluidity, antioxidant, membrane stabilizing, improvement in cognition and pro-healing. Its preparations promote epithelization without altering wound contraction. In case of dead space wounds Ginkgo biloba has increased granulation tissue breaking strength without altering granulation tissue mass weight. However, it did significantly enhance the content of hydroxyl-proline of granulation tissue. The main constituents of Ginkgo biloba are flavonoids and terpene trilactones and the pro-healing action of the Ginkgo biloba is due to the presence of flavonoids45.

 

Curcuma long : Commonly known as turmeric and haldi in Hindi. Curcuma longa has been reported to possess anti-bacterial, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory activities46. Curcumin has potent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities47, Volatile oil isolated from Curcuma longa also exhibits antibacterial and potent anti-inflammatory activity. Curcuma longa also contains protein, fats, vitamins (A, B, C etc) all of which have an important role in would healing and regeneration. Turmeric has been used for treating the wounds in the rats48. The anti-inflammatory property and the presence of vitamin A and proteins in turmeric result in the early synthesis of collagen fibers by mimicking fibroblastic activity49. Juice of the fresh rhizome is commonly applied to recent wounds, bruises and leech bites. A paste of turmeric and leaves of Justica adhatoda with cow urine is rubbed on skin affected with prurigo and eczema. It can also be mixed with ginger oil to prevent skin eruptions.

 

Centella asiatica : Centella asiatica (Brahmi) also known as “gotu kola”, is the main herb in Ayurveda for nervous system. It is used extensively in the treatment of leprosy, a host of skin conditions including cellulites, varicose vein and wounds. The active principles of Centella asiatica are triterpenes and asiaticoside which are responsible for promotion of rapid wound healing50. Aqueous extract of Centella asiatica suspended in 5% propylene glycol promoted wound healing on topical administration in experimentally induced open wounds in rats as compared to other extracts (alcoholic, petroleum ether and chloroform). This was evidenced by the increase in collagen content and thickness of epithelium51. However, demonstrated that alcoholic extract of Centella asiatica orally or topically improved the rate of wound healing in rats. Topical administration of the aqueous extract increased cellular proliferation, promoted the collagen synthesis at the wound site as evidenced by the increase in DNA, protein, collagen content of granulation tissue and in tensile strength. The treated wound epithelized faster as compared to control. Among the various formulations (ointment, cream and gel) of aqueous extract, the process of healing was better with gel formulation52. One preliminary trial found that a gotu kola extract helped heal infected wounds (unless they had reached bone) 53. A review of French studies suggests that topical gotu kola can help wounds54. One study found gotu kola extract helpful for preventing and treating enlarged scars (keloids)55. Standardized extracts of gotu kola containing up to 100% total triterpenoids are generally taken, providing 60 mg once or twice per day. Animal studies have shown that constituents in gotu kola, called asiaticosides, increase antioxidant levels during wound healing and facilitate repair of connective tissues56-57.

 

Cedrus deodara: Its oil has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. Cedrus deodara has also shown wound healing properties and is particularly useful in infective wounds58.

 

Horse chestnutHorse chestnut contains a compound called aescin that acts as an anti-inflammatory and reduces edema (swelling with fluid) following trauma, particularly sports injuries, surgery, and head injury. A topical aescin preparation is popular in Europe for the treatment of acute sprains during sporting events59.

 

Echinacea perpureaEchinacea is used among European practitioners of herbal medicine to promote wound healing60, and is approved by the German government for this use61.

 

Symphytum officinalis: Comfrey has anti-inflammatory properties that may decrease bruising when the herb is applied topically62. Comfrey is also widely used in traditional medicine as a topical application to help heal wounds63.

Chaparral: Chaparral has been used topically to decrease inflammation, and pain, and promote healing of minor wounds. For topical use, cloths can be soaked in oil preparations or tea of chaparral and applied several times per day (with heat if helpful) over the affected area. Powdered chaparral can be applied directly to minor wounds, after they have been adequately cleansed64.

 

Fucus vesiculosus: Alginic acid is one of the main constituents in bladderwrack (Fucus vesiculosus), a type of brown algae (seaweed). Calcium alginate has shown promise as an agent to speed wound healing in animal studies but has not been demonstrated to be effective in humans65.

 

MISCELLANEOUS PRO-HEALERS FROM PLANTS:

The healing effects of Ocimum sanctum, and Begia odorata on infected experimental wounds in laboratory animals have been reported. All these plants, notably Ocimum sanctum promote healing66. The aqueous extract Euphoribia nerrifolia when applied topically facilitates the healing of surgically produced cutaneous wounds in guinea pigs. It increases the gain in tensile strength, DNA content and promoted epithelization67. Alcoholic extract of Indigofera aspalathoides has analgesic, anti-inflammatory and wound healing effect. The crude betal nut extract and its polyphenols promoted healing of incision and dead space wounds68. Fresh leaves of Kalanchoea integra showed encouraging results in healing inflammatory conditions associated with wounds. Mango butter which is extracted from the seeds of Mangifera indica is known to have wound healing properties. It is commonly applied in ulcerations, fissures of lips, hands and on chapped skin. Anecdotal evidence, some clinical observations, animal model studies and few randomized clinical trials support the efficacy of honey in managing wounds69.

 

POLY HERBAL PREPARATION:

Various combinations like extracts of picrorhiza kurroa, Phyllanthus amarus, Andrographis paniculata, Azadirachta indica, Boerhaavia diffusa, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia belerica, Phyllanthus embica, Eclipta alba, Zingiber officinalis, piper longum70, Tridex procumbens, Azadirachta indica, Curcuma longa, Apis melifera71, Tridex procumbens, Phyllanthus amarus,  Ficus racemosa72, Myrica nagi, Vitis adnata, Annona squamosa, Rubia cordifolia, Woodfordia fruticosa, Symplocos racemosa, Cedrus deodera, Aloe vera, Gardenia gummifera, Cassia absus, Cynodon dactylon73, Azadirachta indica, Annona squamosa, Occimum sanctum74, Napoleona imperialis, Occimum gratissimum, Ageratum conyzoides75, Ageratum conyzoides, Ficus religiosa, Curcuma longa, Tamarindus indica76 Madhu ghrita77, Terminalia arjuna, Balsamodendron mukul (guggul), Maharasanadi kwath,Tinospora cordifolia, Rubia cordifolia, Glycyrrhiza glabra and shanka bhasma78 which are claimed to have wound healing action. Poly-herbal preparations containing these herbs have been claimed to be useful in treating Gram negative and Gram positive infections. These herbal preparations have been reported to promote gain in tensile strength in incision wound model, but do not modify the granulation phase of healing. These herbs have also been reported to promote epithelization and wound contraction in cases of excision wound models79. This property may be due to the effect of these herbs on migration and mitosis of epithelial cells and promotion of contraction of myo-fibroblasts are responsible for wound contraction80.

 


 

Table 1 : Plants for Wound healing activity

S.No

Plant Name

Part used

Extract used

Experimental Animals

Activity

Ref.

1.

Abelmoschus manihot

(Malvaceae)

Woody stem

Pet. ether

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[81]

2.

Abutilon indicum (Malvaceae)

Whole plant

Ethanolic ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[82]

3.

Acalypha langiana (Euphorbiaceae)

Leaves

Aq.ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[83]

4.

Achillea biebersteinii (Asteraceae)

Aerial parts

n-hexane, chloroform

Albino mice

Wound healing.

[84]

5.

Achillea millefolium (Asteraceae)

Aerial parts

Hydroalco.ext.

Rabbit

Wound healing.

[85]

6.

Aegle marmelos     (Rutaceae)

Leaves, root, root bark

Aq., methanol ext.

Rabbit

Wound healing.

             [86]

7.

Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae)

Leaves, stem

Oil

Rats

Wound healing.

[87]

8.

Alkanna tinctoria (Boraginaceae)

Roots

Aq. ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[88]

9.

Allamanda cathartic (Apocynaceae)

leaves

Aq. ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[89]

10.

Allium sativum   (Liliaceae)

Bulb

Aq.ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[90]

11.

Aloe vera     (Liliaceae)

Leaves

Fresh juice.

Rats

Wound healing.

Anti-inflammatory.

[91]

12.

Alternanthera brasiliana

( Amaranthaceae)

Leaves

Methanol ext.

Sprague Dawley rats

Wound healing.

[92]

13.

Alternanthera sessile ( Amaranthaceae)

Leaves

Chloroform Ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

Antimicrobial.

[93]

14.

Anogeissus latifolia (Combretaceae)

Bark

Aq.ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[94]

15.

 Anredera diffusa (Basellaceae)

Leaves and Stem

Ethanolic ext.

Mice

Wound healing.

[95]

16.

Argyreia Speciosa (Convolvulaceae)

Leaves

50% ethanolic extract.

Sprague dawley rats

Wound healing, Anti-inflammatory.

[96]

17.

Argemone mexicana (Papaveraceae)

Leaves

Ethanolic ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[97]

18.

Aristolochia bracteolata  (Aristolochiaceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[98]

19.

 Artemisia pallens (Asteraceae)

Whole plant

Meth.andAq. ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[99]

20.

Artocarpus heterophyllus      (Moraceae)

Leaves

Methanol ext.

Albino mice

Wound healing.

[100]

21.

Artocarpus heterophyllus      (Moraceae)

Bark

Methanol ext.

Albino mice

Wound healing.

[101]

22.

Artocarpus heterophyllus      (Moraceae)

Leaves

Methanol ext.

Albino mice

Wound healing.

[102]

23.

Artocarpus hersutus      (Moraceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Albino mice

Wound healing.

[103]

24.

Asparagus racemosa (Liliaceae)

Rhizome

Ethanol ext.

Albino mice

Wound healing.

[104]

25.

Astilbe thunbergii (Saxifragaceae)

Rhizome

Ethanol ext.

Mice

Wound healing.

[105]

26.

Azadirachta indica (Meliaceae)

Juss

Oil

Bovine calves

Wound healing.

[70]

27.

 Biophytum petersianum (Oxalidaceae)

Aerial parts

Aq. ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[106]

28.

Bolax gummifera       (Umbelliferae)

Aerial parts

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[107]

29.

Bryophyllum pinnatum (Crassulaceae)

Leaves

Pet. ether, alco, Aq.ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[108]

30.

Buddleja globosa (Buddlejaceae)

Leaves

Aq. ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[109]

31.

Butea monosperma (Papilionaceae )

Bark

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[110]

32.

Caesalpinia crista (Leguminosae)

Seed, kernels

Ethyl acetate ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[111]

33.

Calendula officinalis (Asteraceae)

Inflorescence

Ethanolic ext.

----

Wound healing.

[112]

34.

Calotropis gigantean (Ascletiadaceae)

Latex

----------

Rats

Procoagulant activity.

[113]

35.

Calotropis procera ( Asclepiadaceae)

Latex

----------

Guinea pig

Wound healing.

[114]

36.

Carica papaya (Caricaceae)

Fruit pulp

-----------

Rats

Wound healing.

[115]

37.

Carica papaya (Caricaceae)

Fruit pulp

Aq. ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[116]

38.

Carica papaya (Caricaceae)

Leaves

Aq. ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[117]

39.

Catharanthus roseus (Apocynaceae)

Flowers

Ethanolic ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[118]

40.

Celosia argentea (Amaranthaceae)

Leaves

Ethanolic ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[119]

41.

Centella asiatica (Apiaceae)

Leaves

Aq.ext.

Albino rates

Wound healing.

[120]

42.

Choerospondias axillaries (Anacardiaceae)

Bark

Water Ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[121]

43.

Chromolaena odorata (Asteraceae)

Leaves

Aq. and Ethanol ext.

Albino rates

Wound healing.

[122]

44.

Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Luraceae)

Bark

Ethanol ext.

Wistar rates

Wound healing.

[123]

45.

Clerodendrum serratum (vervenaceae)

Root , leaves

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[124]

46.

Cocos nucifera (Arecaceae)

Oil

Oil

Wistar rates

Wound healing.

[125]

47.

Colebrookea oppositifolia (Lamiceae)

Leaves

Aq. and Ethanol ext.

Wistar rates

Wound healing.

[126]

48.

Colutea cilicica (Leguminosae)

Fruits, leaves

Aq. ext.

Albino mice

Wound healing.

[127]

49.

Copaifera langsdorffi (Fabaceae)

Bark

Oleo-resin

Rats

Wound healing.

[128]

50.

Cordia dichotoma (Boraginaceae)

Fruits

Ethanol ext.

Albino rates

Wound healing.

[129]

51.

Curcuma aromatica (Zingiberaceae)

Rhizome

Ethanol ext.

Albino mice

Wound healing,

Anti-inflammatory.

[130]

52.

Curcuma longa (Zingiberaceae)      

Rhizome

Ethanol ext.

Mice

Wound healing.

[131]

53.

Cyperus rotundus (Cyperaceae)

Tuber parts

Ethanol ext.

Wister rates

Wound healing.

[132]

54.

Datura alba (Solanaceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Albino rates

Wound healing.

[133]

55.

Desmodium triquetrum (Fabaceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[134]

56.

Diospyros cardifolia (Ebenaceae)

Stem bark

Aq. and CCl4 ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[135]

57.

Dissotis theifolia (Melastomataceae)

Stem

Methanol ext.

Albino rats

Antibacterial,

Wound healing.

[136]

58.

Dodonaea viscose (Sapindaceae)

Leaves

Aq. and Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[137]

59.

Echinaceae pallid (Asteraceae)

Roots

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Anti-inflammatory, Wound healing.

[138]

60.

Ecilipta alba  (Asteraceae)

Roots

Ethanol ext.

Mice.

Wound healing.

[139]

61.

Ecilipta alba  (Asteraceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Pet. ether

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[140]

62.

Ecilipta alba  (Asteraceae)

Roots

Pet. ether

Albino mice

Wound healing.

[141]

63.

Eleusine coracana  (Poaceae)

Flour paste

-----------

Rats

Wound healing.

[142]

64.

Eliphanthus scaber (Asteraceae)

Roots

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[143]

65.

Embelia ribes  (Myrsinaceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[144]

66.

Entada africana guill (Mimosaceae )

Roots

Water ext.

Male rats

Wound healing.

[145]

67.

Eucalyptus globulus L. (Myrtaceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext., oil

Male Albino rats.

Wound healing.

[146]

68.

Euphorbia hirta (Euphorbiaceae)

Whole plant

Ethanolic ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[147]

69.

Euphorbia nerrifolia (Euphorbiaceae)

Latex

----

Rats

Wound healing.

[67]

70.

Ficus religiosa  (Urticaceae)

Bark.

Ethanolic ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[148]

71.

Flaveria trinervia (Asteraceae)

Leaves

Methanolic ext.

Mice

Wound healing.

[149]

72.

Gentiana lutea   (Gentianaceae)

Rhizome

Alco., pet.ether ext.

Rats

Wound healing,    Anti-inflammatory.

[150]

73.

Gingko biloba (Gingkoaceae)

Leaves

Ethanolic ext.

Male rats

Wound healing.

[45]

74.

Glycosmis mauritiana (Rutaceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[151]

75.

Glycyrrhiza glabra (Leguminosae)

Roots

Ethanolic ext., oil

Rats

Wound healing,

Antioxidant.

[152]

76.

Gmelina arborea Roxb. (Verbenaceae)

Leaves

Alco.ext.

Rats.

Wound healing.

[153]

77.

Hamelia patens ( Rubiaceae)

Whole plant

Aq.ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[154]

78.

Helianthus annuus (Combretaceae)

Leaves

Methanol ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[39]

79.

Heliotropium indicum (Boraginaceae)

Leaves

Aq.ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[155]

80.

Hippophae rhamnoids (Elaeagnaceae)

Leaves

Aq.ext.

Albino Rats

Wound healing.

[156]

81.

Hydenocarpus pentandra (Flacourtiaceae)

Seeds

Oil

Rats

Wound healing.

[157]

82.

Hypericum hookerianum (Hypericaceae)

Leaves, Stem.

Methanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[158]

83.

Hypericum  mysorense (Clusiaceae)

Leaves

Methanol ext., tincture

Rats

Wound healing.

[159]

84.

Hypericum patulum (Hppericaceae)

Leaves

Methanol ext., tincture

Rats

Wound healing.

[160]

85.

Hypericum perforatum (Clucaceae)

Aerial parts

Ethanolic ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[161]

86.

Hyptis suaveolens (Lamiaceae)

Leaves

Ethanolic ext.

Wister rats

Wound healing.

[162]

87.

Hylocereus undatus (Cactaceae)

Leaves, fruit pulp, flowers

Aq.ext.

Male Wistar rats

Wound healing activity on  Diabetic

[163]

88.

Indigofera enneaphylla  (Fabaceae)

Aerial parts

Alco.ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[164]

89.

Kalanchoe pinnata (Crassylaceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[165]

90.

Lantana camara  (Verbenaceae)

Leaves

Aq. ext.

Rats

Wound healing,

Hypoglycemic.

[166]

91.

Laurus nobillis (Lauraceae)

Leaves

Aq. ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[89]

92.

Lavendula angustifolia (Labiatae)

Leaves

Oils

Rats

Wound healing.

[167]

93.

Lawsonia alba   (Lythraceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[168]

94.

Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Mice

Wound healing.

[169]

95.

Lawsonia inermis (Lythraceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[170]

96.

Leucas hirta  (Lythraceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[171]

97.

Leucas lavandulaefolia  (Labiatae)

Aerial parts

Methanolic ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[172]

98.

Lithospermum erythrorhizon (Boraginaceae)

Roots

Aq. ext.

Mice

Wound healing.

[173]

99.

Lycopodium serratum (Lycopodiaceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[174]

100.

Merremia tridentae (Convolvulaceae)

Aerial parts

Alco.ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[175]

101.

Momordica charantia(Cucurbitaceae)

Fruits

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[176]

102.

 Moringa citrifolia (Rubiaceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing

[177]

103.

 Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae)

Leaves, root, root bark

Aq. ext.

Rats

Wound healing,

Anti-inflammatory.

[178]

104.

Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae)

Pulp and Seeds

Aq. ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[179]

105.

 Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae)

Leaves

Aq. ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[180]

106.

 Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae)

Leaves, Seeds

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing,

Antipyretic.

[181]

107.

Mucuna  fligillepes (Papillionaceae)

Seed.

...........

Pig, Rats.

Wound healing.

[182]

108.

Musa paradisica (Musaceae)

Leaf dressing

----------

Rats

Wound healing.

[183]

109.

Musa sapientum (Musaceae)

Fruits

Aq. ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[184]

110.

Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiaceae)

Leaves

Methanol ext.

Wister Rats

Wound healing,

[185]

111.

Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae)

Leaves

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[186]

112.

Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae)

Whole plant

Ethanol ext.

Wistar rats

Wound healing,

Antioxidant.

[187]

113.

Ocimum sanctum (Lamiaceae)

Leaves

Aq. ext.

 Albino rats

Wound healing.

[188]

114.

Opuntia ficus-indica L. (Cactaceae)

Terminal cladodes

Juice

Rats

Healing of dermal Wound.

[189]

115.

Oxalic corniculata (Oxalidaceae)

Whole plant

Petroleum ether.

Rats

Wound healing.

[190]

116.

Panax ginseng     (Araliaceae)

Leaves

----

Rats

Epidermis proliferative effect.

[191]

117.

Paspalum scrobiculatum (Poaceae)

Flour paste

-------

Rats

Wound healing.

[142]

118.

Pentas lanceolata (Rubiaceae)

Flowers

Ethanolic ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[192]

119.

Peperomia galioides        (Piperaceae)

Crushed whole plant except root

Ethanol ext.

Mice

Wound healing.

[193]

120.

Phyllanthus nirulii (Euphorbiaceae)

whole plant

Meth.ext.

 Albino rats

Wound healing,

Antiulcer.

[194]

121.

Pterocarpus marsupium (Fabaceae)

Leaves, Stem, Bark.

Aq. Meth.ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[195]

122.

Pterocarpus santalinus (Fabaceae)

Leaves, Stem, Bark.

Ethanolic ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[196]

123.

Piper betle  (Piperaceae)

Rhizome, leaves

Aq.ext.

Rabbit

Wound healing,

Anti-inflammatory.

[197]

124.

Plagiochasma

appendiculatum (Aytoniaceae)

Powderd shalli

Aq., alco. ext.

Rats

Wound healing, Antimicrobial.

[198]

125.

Polianthes tuberosa (Amaryllidaceae)

Bulb

pet. ether, alco., chloroform  ext.

Mice

Wound healing.

[199]

126.

Polyscias scutellaria (Araliaceae)

Leaves

Chloroform ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[200]

127.

Portulaca oleracea  (Portulacaceae)

Aerial parts

Crude ext.

Musmusculus JVI-I

Wound healing.

[201]

128.

Prosthechea michuacana

(Orchidaceae)

Bulb

n-hexane

Rats

Wound healing,

Anti-inflammatory.

[202]

129.

Punica gratum (Punicaceae)

Peels

-------

Rats

Wound healing.

[203]

130.

Rhizophora mangle (Rhizophoraceae)

Bark

Aq. Ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[204]

131.

Rubia cardifolia (Rubiaceae)

Roots

Ethanolic ext

Mice

Wound healing.

[205]

132.

Rubus sanetus(Rosaceae)

Aerial parts

n-hexane, Pet. Ether

Rats

Wound healing.

[206]

133.

Saussurea lappa (Asteraceae)

Roots

Ethanolic ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[207]

134.

Scrophularia nodosa (Scrophulariaceae)

Seed pods

Methanolic ext.

In vitro

Wound healing.

[208]

135.

Sesamum indicum (Pedaliaceae)

Seed

Oil

Wister rats

Wound healing

[209]

136.

Solanum tuberosum (Solanaceae)

Tuber

Fiber

Rats

Wound healing.

[210]

137.

Sphaeranthus indicus (Asteraceae)

Aerial parts

Ethanol ext.

Guinea pigs

Dermal Wound.

[211]

138.

Stryphanodendron Polyphyllum (Leguminosae)

Stem

Ethanolic ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[212]

139.

Stryphanodendron obovatum(Leguminosae)

Stem

Ethanolic ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[212]

140.

Swertia chirata (Gentianaceae)

Roots

Ethanolic ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[213]

141.

Tectona grandis (Verabinaceae)

Leaves

Hydroalco.ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[214]

142.

Tephrosia purpurea (Papilionaceae)

Aerial parts

Ethanolic ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[215]

143.

Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae)

Bark

Hydroalco.ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[216]

144.

Terminalia arjuna (Combretaceae)

Bark

Alco.ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[217]

145.

Terminalia belerica (Combretaceae)

Fruits

Ethanolic ext

Rats

Wound healing.

[218]

146.

Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae)

Leaves

Alco.ext.

Rats

Wound healing, Antimicrobial.

[219]

147.

Thespesia populnea (Malvaceae)

Fruits

Aq. ext

Rats

Wound healing.

[220]

148.

Thymus vulgaris) (Lamiaceae)

Leaves

Essential oil

Rats

Wound healing.

[221]

149.

Tinospora cardifolia (Menispermaceae)

Leaves, stem

Alco.ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[222]

150.

Toddalia asiatica (Combretaceae)

Stem, Bark

Aq., butanol, pet.ether ext.

Rats

Wound healing,

Antimicrobial.

[223]

151.

Tragia involucrata (Euphorbiaceae)

Roots, leaves

Methanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing, Antibacterial.

[224]

152.

Tragia plukenetii (Euphorbiaceae)

Whole plant

Ethanolic ext.

Albino Rats

Wound healing.

[225]

153.

 Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae)

Whole plant

Aq., butanol, pet.ether ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[226]

154.

 Tridax procumbens (Asteraceae)

Leaves

Aq.ext.

Albino mice

Wound healing.

[227]

155.

Trigonella foenum-graecum (Papilionaceae)

Seed

Aq. suspension, seed ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[228]

156.

Vernonia arborea (Compositae)

Leaves

Methanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[229]

157.

Vernonia scorpioides (Asteraceae)

Leaves

Ethanolic ext.

Guinea pig

Wound healing.

[230]

158.

Vitex leucoxylon   (Verbenaceae)

Leaves

Alco.ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing,    Anti-inflammatory.

[231]

159.

Vitex pinnata   (Verbenaceae)

Leaves

Aq. ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing,

Antipyretic.

[232]

160.

Vitis vinifera (Vitaceae)

Seeds

 

Rats

Wound healing.

[233]

161.

Wrightia tintoria (Apocynaceae)

Woody stem

Meth. Ext.

Albino rats

Wound healing.

[81]

162.

Wrightia tintoria (Apocynaceae)

Bark

Ethanol ext.

Rats

Wound healing.

[234]

 


CONCLUSION:

Many Medicinal plants have a very important role in the process of wound healing. Plants are more potent healers because they promote the repair mechanisms in the natural way. The healing process can be physically monitored by assessing the rate of contraction of the wound, period of epithelization, tensile strength, histopathology, weight of granuloma in different wound models. The Healing tissue synthesizes more collagen to provide tensile strength. Wounds cause the activation of a cytokine cascade that result in the formation of oxygen free radicals to lipid per oxidation. Any drug that inhibits lipid per oxidation believed to increase the viability of cells by improving circulation preventing cell survey traditional systems of medicine various plants have been used to promote the wound healing activity. Normally healing involves an inflammatory phase followed by fibroblast proliferation, formation of collagens fiber, dermal, epidermal constitute and shrinkage and lying of the scar. These phase are concurrent but independent of each other. Wound healing properties demonstrated by significance increase in wound contraction rate and enhanced epithelization, tensile strength, reflecting increase collegen level in dermis as supported form histopathological study.

 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

The authors are thankful to Bhopal Institute of Technology and Science-Pharmacy, Bhojpur Road, Bhopal for providing facilities to carry out the review work.

 

REFERENCES:

1.         Leach MJ. Making sense of the venous leg ulcer debate: a literature review. J Wound Care. 2004; 13(2): 52–56.

2.         Gilchrist B. Treating bacterial wound infection. Nurs Times. 1994; 90(50): 55–58.

3.         Leach MJ. A critical review of natural therapies in wound management. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2004; 50(2): 36–46.

4.         Keville K.  Herbs: An Illustrated Herb Encyclopedia: A Complete Culinary, Cosmetic, Medicinal, and Ornamental Guide. East Roseville, Friedman/Fairfax; 1991.

5.         Bennet RG. Fundamentals of cutaneous surgery. St.Louis: Mosby Publication. 1988.

6.         Myers KA. Principles of Pathology in Surgery. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London, 1980.

7.         Mather MD, Sherman M and Frycakowski A. Invest Ophthalmol. Vismal Sci.1989; 30: 2403-2406. 

8.         Ehrlich HP and Hunt TK. Effects of cortisone and vitamin A on wound healing. Ann Surg.1968; 167: 324-326. 

9.         Raju SS and Kulkarni DR. Vitamin are verses the wound healing suppressant effect of cyclophosphamide. Indian J. Pharmacol. 1986; 18:154-157.

10.      Savanth SS. Text book and atlas of Dermatology and Cosmetology. Ascad Prakshan,  Mumbai,1998.

11.      Chulani HL. In The law of medical negligence. Radhakrishan Medical and Educational Trust, Mumbai, 1996.

12.      Savanth SS. Text book and atlas of dermatosurgery and cosmetology. Ascad Publication, Mumbai, 1996.

13.      Udupa SL, Shaila HP, Udupa AL, Ramesh KV and Kulkarni DR. Wound healing properties of some medicinal plant. Biochem Arch. 1991; 7: 207-212. 

14.      Dahanukar SA and Kulkarni RA. Pharmacology of medicinal plants and natural products. Indian J. Pharmacol2000; 32: S81-S118. 

15.      Thomson PD. Immunology, microbiology, and the recalcitrant wound. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2000; 46(1A Suppl): 77S–82S.

16.      Pierce GF. Inflammation in non healing diabetic wounds: the space-time continuum does matter. Am J Pathol 2001; 159(2): 399–403.

17.      Della Loggia R and Tubaro A. The role of triterpenoids in the topical anti-inflammatory activity of Calendula officinalis flowers. Planta Med 1994; 60(6): 516–520.

18.      Mascolo N and Autore G. Biological screening of Italian medicinal plants for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytotherapy Res. 1987; 1(1): 28–31.

19.      Akihisa T, Yasukawa K and Oinuma H. Triterpene alcohols from the flowers of compositae and their anti-inflammatory effects. Phytochemistry. 1996; 43(6): 1255–1260.

20.      Yeoh S. The influence of iron and free radicals on chronic leg ulceration. Primary Intention. 2000; 8(2): 47–55.

21.      Rijswik L, Harding K and Bacilious N. Issues and clinical implications. Ostomy Wound Manage. 2000; 46(1A Suppl): 51S-62S.

22.      Faoagali J. Use of antiseptics in managing difficult wounds. Primary Intention. 1999; 7(4): 156–160.

23.      Dundee. The Wound Handbook. Kirkcaldy: Centre for Medical Education, 1993.

24.      Klouchek-Popova E, Popov A, Pavlova N and Krüsteva S. Influence of the physiological regeneration and epithelialization using fractions isolated from Calendula officinalis. Acta Physiol Pharmacol Bulg. 1982; 8(4): 63–67.

25.      Brown DJ and Dattner AM. Phytotherapeutic approaches to common dermatologic conditions. Arch Dermatol. 1998; 134(11): 1401–1404.

26.      Hey B. The Illustrated Book of Herbs. New Holland Publishers, England, 1996.

27.      Rao SG, Udupa AL and Udupa SL. Calendula and Hypericum two homeopathic drugs promoting wound healing in rats. Fitoterapia. 1991; 62(6): 508–510.

28.      Perri de Carvalho P, Tagliavini D and Tagliavini R. Cutaneous cicatrization after topical application of Calendula cream and comfrey, propolis, and honey associations in infected wound of skin. Clinic and histologic study in rats. Rev Ciencia Biomedica. 1991; 12: 39–50.

29.      Szabo E and Bujdoso J. Calendula officinalis in wound treatment. Nover. 1994; 7(3): 20-22. 

30.      Schmidt JM and Greenspoon JS. Aloe vera dermal wound gel is associated with a delay in wound healing. Obstet. Gynecol. 1991; 78: 115-117.

31.      Kurian JC. Plants that heal. Owners Oriental Watchman Publishing House, Pune, 1995.

32.      Fayazuddin M. Faiz .Faiz Homeopathic Publication House, Kakinada, 1981.

33.      Chadha YR. The Wealth of India Raw Materials, vol x, Publication and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi, 1976.  

34.      Diwan PV, Tillo LD and Kulkarni DR. Steroid depressed wound healing and Tridax procumbens. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 1983; 27(1): 32-36.

35.      Udupa SL. A comparative study on the effect of some indigenous drugs on normal and steroid depressed healing. Fitoterapia. 1998; 69: 507-510.

36.      Akah PA. Mechanism of hemostatic activity of Eupatorium odoratum. Int. J. Crude Drug Res. 1990; 28(4): 253-256.

37.      Lee TT. The use of Eupolin prepared from Eupotorium to treat soft tissue wounds. The 5th European Tissue Repair Society Meeting, Padova, Italy. 1995.

38.      Jain SK and Tarafdar CR. A review of P.O. Bodding’s work, Medicine plantlove of Sautals. Econ Bot. 1970; 24: 241.

39.      Deshpande PJ. Healing of experimental wounds with Helianthus annus. Indian J. Med. Res. 1965; 53: 539.

40.      Deshpande SM and Upadyaya RR. Chemical studies of Jasminum auriculatum (VAHL) leaves. Curr Sci. 1967; 36: 233.

41.      Deshpande PJ and Pathak SN. Influence of Juice of leaves of Jasminum auriculatum on experimental wounds in albino rats. Med.Surg. 1966a; 6: 21.

42.      Deshpande PJ and Pathak SN. Effect of ghee medicated with Jasminum auriculatum on experimental Wound. Indian J.Med. Res. 1966b; 1(1): 81.

43.      Hori RW. Ginkgo biloba a global treasure. From Biology to Medicine. Verlag Tokyo. 1997; 350.

44.      Newall CA. Ginkgo in herbal medicine, a guide for health care professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London 1996. 

45.      Bairy KL. Wound healing profile of Ginko biloba. J. Nat. Remed. 2001; 1: 25-27.

46.      Chopra RN and Nayar SL. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants, CSIR,New Delhi, 1986.

47.      Srimal RC and Khanna NM. A preliminary report on anti-inflammatory activity of Cucurmin. Indian J.Pharmacol. 1971; 3: 10. 

48.      Rao SGV and Selvaraj J. Efficacy of some indigenous medicines in wound healing in rats. Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 2003; 73: 652-653.

49.      Kumar AS and Singh HP. Efficacy of some indigenous drugs in tissue repair in buffaloes. Indian Vet. J. 1993; 70: 42-44. 

50.      Shukla A and Rasik AM. Asiaticoside-induced elevation of antioxidant levels in healing wounds. Phytother. Res. 1999; 13(1): 50-54.

51.      Rao VG and Shivakumar HG. Influence of aqueous extract of Centella asiatica on experimental wounds in albino rats. Indian J. Pharmacol. 1996; 28: 249-253.

52.      Suguna L and Shivakumar P.  Effects of Centella asiatica extract on dermal wound healing in rats. Indian J. Exp.Biol.1996; 34: 1208-1211.

53.      Morisset R and Cote NG. Evaluation of the healing activity of hydrocotyle tincture in the treatment of wounds. Phytother Res. 1987; 1: 117–121.

54.      Kartnig T. Clinical applications of Centella asiatica (L) Urb. In Herbs, Spices, and Medicinal Plants: Recent Advances in Botany, Horticulture, and Pharmacology, vol.3. Craker LE, Simon JE (eds). Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press, 1986.

55.      Bosse JP and Papillon J. Clinical study of a new antikeloid drug. Ann Plastic Surg. 1979; 3: 13–21.

56.      Maquart FX, Chastang F, Simeon A, Birembaut P, Gillery P and Wegrowski Y. Triterpenes from Centella asiatica stimulate extrcellular matrix accumulation in rat wounds. Eur. J. Dermatol. 1999; 9(4): 289-296.

57.      Shukla A and Rasik AM. In vitro and in vivo wound healing activity of asiaticoside isolated from Centella asiatica. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 65: 1–11.

58.      Dikshit A and Dixit SN. Cedrus oil–apromising anti-fungal agent. Indian Perfumer. 1982; 26: 216-227.

59.      Guillaume M and Padioleau F. Veinotonic effect, vascular protection, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging properties of horse chestnut extract. Arzneimittel for schung. 1994; 44: 25–35.

60.      Hobbs C. A  Echinacea: literature review. HerbalGram.1994; 30: 33–48.

61.      Blumenthal M and Busse WR. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Boston: Integrative Medicine Communications, 1998. 

62.      Blumenthal M, Busse WR and Goldberg A. The Complete German Commission E Monographs. Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin, Texas: American Botanical Council, 1998. 

63.      Weiss R.Herbal Medicine. Gothenburg, Sweden: Ab Arcanum and Beaconsfield, UK: Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd, 1988.  

64.      Kay MA. Healing with Plants in the American and Mexican West. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1996.

65.      Bernett SA and Varely  SJ. The effects of calcium alginate on wound healing. Ann R coll Surgeons Eng. 1987; 69: 153-155.

66.      Thaker HM and Anjaria JV. Antimicrobial and infected wound healing response of some traditional drugs. Indian J.Pharmacol.1986; 18: 171-174.

67.      Shukla  A and Rasik AM. Wound healing activity of latex of Euphorbia neriifolia Linn. Indian J. Pharmacol. 1996; 28: 107-109.

68.      Padmaja PN, Bairy KL and Kulkarni DR. Pro-healing effect of betel nut and its polyphenols. Fitoterapia. 1993; LXV(4): 298-300.

69.      Molan PC. The role of honey in the management of wounds. J. Wound Care. 1999; 8(8): 423-426.

70.      Nodig Shobha S, Rao S and Gurumadhva S. Effect of an indigenous formulation on wound healing in rats. Indian Drugs. 1999; 36(12): 731-734.

71.      Shinde AD and Bhise SB. Evaluation of wound healing activity herbal drug combination. Indian Drugs. 2004; 41(6): 336-338.   

72.      Brinda P and Radhica  J. Evaluation of wound healing potential of an herbal formulation. Indian Drugs. 2008; 45(1): 63-66.

73.      Mohanta GP and Jamal M. Formulation and evaluation of a polyherbal wound healing cream. Indian Drugs. 2007; 44(4): 280-281.

74.      Thaker M and Anjaria JV. Antimicrobial and infected wound healing, response of some traditional drugs. Indian J. Pharmac.1985; 18: 171-174.

75.      Chah KF, Eze CA, Emuelosi CE, Esimone CO. Antibacterial and Wound healing properties of methanolic extract of some Nigerian medicinal plants. Journal of ethanopharmacology. 2006; 104: 164-167.

76.      Jain S, Jain N, Tiwari A, Balekar N, and Jain DK. Simple evaluation of wound healing activity of polyherbal formulations of roots of Ageratum conyzoides Linn. Asian J Research Chem. 2009; 2(2): 135-138.

77.      Sharde MS, Fulzele SV, Satturwar PM, Joshi SB, and Kasture AV. Wound healing and Antiinflammatory potential of Madhu ghrita. Indian J Pharm sci. 2006; 68: 26-31.

78.      78. Mukherjee Pulok K and Mukharjee Kakali. Evaluation of wound healing activity of some herbal formulations. Phytother. Res. 2003; 17: 265-268.

79.      Nandakarni KM and Nadakarni AK. Indian Materia Medica, IIIrd edn, Popular book depot, Doota Paperhwar Prakashan Ltd:Bombay, 1954. 

80.      Gibbiani G and Hirschel BJ. Granulation tissue as a contractile organ: a study of structure and function. J. Exp. Med. 1972; 135: 719-734.

81.      Jain PS and Bari SB. Evaluation of wound healing effect of petroleum ether and methanolic extract of Abelmoschus manihot (L.) medik., malvaceae, and Wrightia tintoria R. Br., apocynaceae, in rats. Braz.J. Pharmacogn. 2010.

82.      Roshan S, Sadath A, Abdullah K, Tazneem B and Purohit MG. Wound healing of activity of Abutilon indicum. Pharmacognosy Meg. 2008; 4(15): 85-88.

83.      Perez GRM, Vargas SR and Ortiz HYD. Wound healing properties of Acalypha langiana on diabetic rats. Fitoterapia Res. 2006; 77: 283-289.

84.      Akkoi EK, Ufuk K, Ipek P and Demet Y. Evaluation of the wound healing potential of Achillea biebersteinii Afan. (Asteraceae) by in vivo excision and incision models. Ecam.2009; 1-7.

85.      Hemmati AA, Arzi A and Amin M. Effect of Achillea millefolium extract in wound healing of rab. Journal of Natural Remedies. 2002; 2(2): 164-167.

86.      Jaswanath Akilandeswari A, Loganathan V, Manimaran S and Ruckmani. Wound healing activity of Aegle marmeolos. Indian Journal of  Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2001; 63(1): 41-44.

87.      Oladejo OW et al. A comparative study of the wound healing properties of honey and Ageratum conyzoides. Afr. J. Med. Med Sci. 2003; 32(2): 193-196.

88.      Papageorgiou VP. Wound healing properties of napthoquinone pigments from Alkanna tinctoria. Experientia. 1978; 34(11): 1499-1501.

89.      Shivanand N,  Poorna N,  Steve S, Vidyasagar B and  Andrew A. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Allamanda cathartica. L.and Laurus nobilis. L. BMC.Compl Altern. Medicine. 2006; 6: 12-16.

90.      Sidik K and Mehmood A. Acceleration of wound healing by aqueous extracts of Allium sativum in combination with honey on cutaneous wound healing in rats. International Journal of Molecular Medicines and Advanced Sciences. 2006; 2(2): 231-235.

91.      Davis RH, Donata JJ, Hartman GM and Hass RC. Anti inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in Aloe vera. J. Am Padiatr. Med. Assoc. 1994; 84(2): 77-81.

92.      Barua CC, Talukdar A, Begum SA, Sharma DK, Pathak DC, Barua AG and Bora RS. Wound healing activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Alternanthera brasiliana Kuntz using in vivo and in vitro models. IJEB. 2009; 47: 1001-1005.

93.      Jalapure SS, Agrawal N, Patil MB, Chimkode R and Tripathi A. Antimicrobial and wound healing activity of Alternanthera sessile Linn. Int. J Green Pharm. 2008; 2: 141-144.

94.      Govindarajan R, Vijayakumar M, Venkateshwararao C, Shirwaikar A and Pushpangadan P. Healing potential of Anogeissus latifolia for dermal wounds in rats. Acta. Pharm. 2004; 54(4): 331-338.

95.      Letts GM et al. In vivo wound healing activity of oleanolic acid derived from the acid hydrolysis of Anredera diffusa. Journal of Nat. Product. 2006; 69: 978-978.

96.      Kartik R et al. Ethnopharmacological evaluation of Argyreia speciosa (Roxb) sweet for wound healing, and anti-inflammatory activity, National seminar on New millennium strategies for Quality, safety and GMP of herbal drugs/products; 2003 Nov. 11-13;  NBRI, Lucknow.

97.      Ghosh T et al. Wound healing properties of Argemone mexicana. Ind J. Nat. Prod. 2004; 20(4): 3-6.

98.      Shirwaikar A et al. Wound healing studies of Aristolochia bracteolate Lam, with supportive action of antioxidant enzymes. Phytomedicine. 2003; 10(6-7): 558-562.

99.      Bagali RS and Rasal VP.  Wound healing effect of Artemisia pallens. Indian Drugs. 2006; 43(12): 981-984.

100.    Kalpna S, Patil AG, Jadhav and Joshi VS. Wound healing activity of leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences. 2005; 67(5): 629-632.

101.    Raghuvanshi D, Gupta N, Jain UK, Raghuvanshi AS and Patel A. Evaluation of wound healing activity of bark ofArtocarpus heterophyllus.Research J Pharm.& Tech. 2010; 3(4): 36-37.

102.    Gupta N, Jain UK and Pathak AK. Wound healing properties of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.Ancient Science of Life. 2009; 28(4): 1283-1284.

103.    Gupta N, Jain UK, Patel A and Devalia R. Wound healing activity of methanolic extract of leaves of Artocarpus hersutus. Planta Indica. 2009; 5(3): 12-13.

104.    Patil SM, Sapkle GN, Patil MB and Sampure CK. Wound healing activity of roots of Asparagus racemosus willd. Indian drugs. 2010; 47(4): 61-64.

105.    Kimura Y, Sumiyoshi M and Sakanaka M. Effects of Astilbe thunbergii rhizome in wound healing activity. Journal Ethnopharmacology. 2007; 109: 72-77.

106.    Inngjerdingen KT, Coulibaly A, Diallo D, Michaelsen TE and Paulsen BS. A complement fixing polysaccharide from Biophytum petersianum Klotzsch, a medicinal plant from Mali, West Africa. Biomacromolecules. 2006; 7(1): 48-53.

107.    Mongelli E, Desmarchelier C, Coussio J and Ciccia G. Biological studies of Bolax gummifera, a plant of the Falkland island used as a treatment of wound. Journal of  Ethnopharmacology . 1997; 56(2): 117-121.

108.    Khan M, Patil PA and Shobha JC. Influence of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lim.) leaf extract on wound healing in albino rats. Journal of Natural Remedies. 2004; 4: 41.

109.    Mensah AY, Sampson J, Houghton PJ, Hylands PJ, Westbrook J, Dunn M, et al. Effects of Buddleja globosa leaf and its constituents relevant to wound healing. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2001; 77: 219-226.

110.    Sumitra M, Manikandan P and Suguna L. Efficacy of Butea monosperma on dermal wound healing in rats. Int. J .Biochem. Cell Biol. 2005; 37(3): 566-573.

111.    Patil KS. Wound healing activity of the seed kernels of Caesalpinia crista. Journal of  Natural Remedies. 2005; 5(1): 26-30.

112.    Maithew J. Calendula officinalis and wound healing-A systemic review. Sidebar-in article. Wound. 2008; 20(6): 15-21.

113.    Rajesh R, Raghavendra Gowda CD, Nataraju A, Dhananjaya BL and Vishwnath B.S. Procoagulant activity of Calotropis gigantea. Toxicon. 2005; 46(1): 84-92.

114.    Rasik AM, Raghubir R, Gupta A, Shukla A, Dubey MP, Srivastav S, et al.Healing potential of Calotropis procera on dermal wounds in guinea pigs. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1999; 68(1-3): 261-266.

115.    Mikhal chik EV, Ivanova AV, Anurov MV, Titkova SM, Penkov LY, Kharaeva ZF, et al. Wound healing effect of papaya-based preparation in experimental thermal trauma. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 2004; 137(6): 560-562.

116.    Nayak BS, Pereira LP and Maharaj D. Wound healing activity of Carica papaya L. in experimental induced diabetic rats. Indian J Exp. Biol. 2007; 45: 739-743.

117.    Mahmood AA, Sidik K and Salmah I. Wound healing activity of Carica papaya L. Aqueous leaf extract in rats. Int. J Mol. Med. Adv. Sci. 2005; 1(4): 398-401.

118.    Nayak BS and Lexley M. Catharanthus roseus flower has wound healing activity in Sprague dawley rats. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2006; 6:41: 1-6.

119.    Priya KS, Armugam G, Rathinam B, Wells A and Babu M. Celosia argentea Linn. Leaf extract improves wound healing in a rat burn wound model. Wound Repair Regen. 2004; 12(6): 618-625.

120.    Sunilkumar S, Parameshwaraiah and Shivakumar HG. Evaluation of topical formulations of aqueous extract of Centella asiatica on open wounds in rats. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 1998; 36(6): 569-572.

121.    Nguyen DD, guyen NHN, Nguyen TT, Phan TS, Nguyen VD, Grabe M, et al.The use of water extract from the bark of Choerospondias axillaries in the treatment of second degree burns. Scand J. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. Hand Surg. 1996; 30(2): 139-144.

122.    Phan TT, Hughes MA and Cherry GW. Enhanced proliferation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells treated with an extract of the leaves of Chromolaena odorata (Eupolin), an herbal remedy for treating wounds. Plast.Reconstr.Surg. 1998; 101(3): 756-765.

123.    Kamath JV, Rana AC and Choudhury AR. Prohealing effect of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark. Phytother. Res. 2003; 17(8): 970-972.

124.    Vidya SM, Krishna V and Manjunatha BK. Evaluation of wound healing activity of root and leaf extracts of Clerodendrum serratum. Indian Drugs. 2005; 42(9): 609-613.

125.    Shrivastav P and Durgaprasad S. Burn wound healing property of Cocos nucifera: An appraisal. Indian J Pharmacol. 2008; 40: 144-146.

126.    Madhavan V, Yadav DK, Murali A and Yoganarasimhan SN. Wound healing activity of aqueous and alcohol extracts of leaves of Colerookea oppositifolia Smith. Indian Drug. 2009; 46(3): 209-213.

127.    Siintar IP, Koca V, Akkoi EK and Alper M. Assessment of wound healing activity of the aqueous extract of Colutea cilicica Boiss. And Bal. fruits and leaves. eCAM. 2009.

128.    Paiva LA, Alencar De, Cunha KM, Santos FA, Gramosa NV, Silveria ER, et al. Investigation on the wound healing activity of oleo-resin from Copaifera langsdorffi in rats. Phytother Res. 2002; 16(8): 737-739.

129.    Kuppast IJ and Nayak PV. Wound healing activity of Cordia dichotoma forst. F.fruits. Natural Product Radiance. 2006; 5(2): 99-102.

130.    Kumar A, Chomwal R, Kumar P and Sawal R. Anti-inflammatory and Wound healing activity of Curcuma aromatica salibs extract and its formulation. J. Chemical and Research. 2009; 1(1): 304-310.

131.    Jagetia GC and Rajanikant GK. Role of curcumin, a naturally occurring phenolic compound of turmeric in accelerating the repair of excision wound in mice whole body exposed to various doses of gamma radiation. J. Surg. Res. 2004; 120(1): 127-138.

132.    Purachikody A, Devi CN and Nagalakshmi G. Wound healing activity of Cyprus rotundus Linn. Indian J. Pharm Sci. 2006; 68: 97-101.

133.    Shanmugapriya K, Gnanamani A, Radhakrishnan N and Babu M. Healing potential of Datura alba on burn wounds in albino rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 83: 193-199.

134.    Shirwaikar A, Jahagirdar S and Udupa AL. Wound healing activity of Desmodium triquetrum leaves. Ind. J. Pharm. Sci. 2003; 65(5): 461-464.

135.    135. Mankani K, Krishna V and Singh JSD. Evaluation of wound healing activity of the stem bark of Diospyros cordifolia. Indian Drugs. 2005; 41(10): 628-632.

136.    Odimegwu DC, Lbezim EC, Esimone CO, Nworu CS and Okoye FBC. Wound healing and antibacterial activity of the extract of Diossotis thefolia (melastomataceae) stem formulated in a simple ointment base. J. Med. Plants Res. 2008; 2(1): 11-16.

137.    Joshi SD, Aravind MB, Ashok K, Veerapur VP and Shastry CS. Wound healing activity of Dodonaea viscosa leaves. Indian Drugs. 2003; 40(9): 549.

138.    Speroni E, Govoni P,  Guizzardi S, Renzulli C and Guerra MC. Anti inflammatory and cicatrizing activity of Echinacae pallida Nutt. Root extract. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79(2): 265-272.

139.    Patil MB, Jalalpure SS and Nagoor VS. Wound healing activity of the roots of Eclipta alba. Indian Drugs. 2003; 41(1): 40-45.

140.    Sharma S and Sikarwar MS. Wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Eclipta alba. Phcog. Mag.. 2008; 4(13): 108-111.

141.    Jagadish NRN and Mehmood R. Wound healing effect of Echinops echinatus Roxb-Roots. Indian drugs. 2009; 46(4): 342-346.

142.    Hegde PS, Anitha B and Chandra TS. In vivo effect of whole grain flour of finger millet (Eleusine coracana) and kodo millet (Paspalum scorbiculatum) on rat dermal wound healing. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 2005; 43(3): 254-258.

143.    Singh SD, Krishna V and Mankani Kl. wound healing activity of the leaf extracts and deoxyelephantopin isolated from Elephantopus scaber. Indian Journal of pharmacology. 2005; 37(4): 238-242.

144.    Kumara Swamy HM and Krishna V. Wound healing activity of embelin isolated from the ethanol extract of leaves of Embelia ribes. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007; 109: 529-534.

145.    Diallo D, Paulsen BS, Liljback THA and Michaelsen TE. Evaluation of wound healing activity of the roots Entada aricana. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2001; 74(2): 159-171.

146.    Hukkeri VI, Karadi RV, Akki KS, Savadi RV, Jaiprakash B, Kuppast I.J, et al. Wound healing property of Eucalyptus globules L. leaf extract. Indian Drugs. 2002; 39(9): 481-483.

147.    Jaiprakash B, Karadi RV, Savadi RV, Chandramohan B and Gadage NB. Wound healing activity of Euphorbia hirta. Indian Drugs. 2005; 43(2): 112-116.

148.    Choudhary GP. Evaluation of ethanolic extracts of ficus religiosa bark on incision and excision wound  in rats. Planta indica. 2006; 2: 17-19.

149.    Umadevi S, Mohanta GP, Kalaichelvan VK and Manavalan R. Studies on wound healing effect of Flaveria trinervia leaf in mice. Indian J. Pham sci. 2006; 68: 106-108.

150.    Mathew A, Taranalli AD and Torgal SS. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of Gentiana lutea rhizome extracts in animals.Pharma. Biol. 2004; 42: 8-12.

151.    Ajitha RR, Sane RT and Vakil BV. Evaluation of wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Glycosamine mauritiana. Indian Drugs. 2010; 47(8): 58-62.

152.    Sam SKG, Kumar BS, Saravanan MS and Sridhar SK. Evaluation of wound healing properties of Glycyrrhiza glabra root extracts. Indian Drugs. 2000; 38(7): 355-357.

153.    Shirwaikar A, Ghosh S, Padma G and Rao M. Effect of Gmelina arborea Roxb. Leaves on wound healing in rats. Journal of Natural Remedies. 2003; 3/1: 45-48.

154.    Gomez-Beloz A, Rucunski JC and Tipton C. Double incision wound healing bioassay using Hamelia patens from El Salvador. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 88(2-3): 169-173.

155.    Reddy JS, Rao PR and Reddy MS. Wound healing effects of Heliotropium indicum, Plumbago zelanicum and Acalypha indica in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2002; 79(2): 249-251.

156.    Gupta A, Kumar R, Pal K, Banerjee PK and Sawhney RC. A preclinical study of the effects of seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) leaf extract on cutaneous wound healing in albino rats.  J. Int Low. Extrem. Wounds. 2005; 4(2): 88-92.

157.    Oommen ST, Rao M and Raju CV. Effect of oil of Hydnocarpus on wound healing. Int. J. Lepr. Other Mycobact. Dis. 1999; 67(2): 154-158.

158.    Mukherjii PK and Suresh B. The evaluation of wound healing potential of Hypericum hookerianum leaf and stem extracts. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2000a; 6: 61-69.

159.    Mukherjii PK and Suresh B. Studies on in vivo wound healing activity of leaf extract of Hypericum mysorense with different wound model in rats. Natural Product Sciences. 2000b; 6: 73-78.

160.    Mukherjii PK, Verpoorte R and Suresh B. evaluation in vivo wound healing activity of Hypericum patulum (Family-Hypericaceae) leaf extract on different wound model in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2000; 70: 315-321.

161.    Nilgun, Ozturk, Seval and Korkmaz. Wound healing activity of Hypericum perforatum on chicken embryonic fibroblasts. Journal of  Ethnopharmacology. 2007; 111: 33-39.

162.    Shirwaikar A, Shenoy R, Udupa AL, Udupa SL and Shetty S. Wound healing property of ethanolic extract of leaves of Hyptis Suaveolens with supportive role of antioxidant enzymes. Ind. J. Expt. Biol. 2003; 41: 238-241.

163.    Perez GRM, Vargas SR and Ortiz HYD. Wound healing properties of Hylocereus undatus on diabetic rats. Phytother Res. 2005; 19(8): 665-668.

164.    Hemalatha S, Subramanian N, Ravichandran V and Chinnaswamy K. Wound healing activity of Indigofera enneaphylla. Ind. J. Pharm. Sci. 2001; 63: 331-333.

165.    Nayak BS, Marshall JR and Isitor G. Wound healing potential of ethanolic extract of Kalanchoe pinnata Lam. Leaf- A preclinical study. Indian J Exp. Biol. 2010; 48: 572-576.

166.    Dash GK, Suresh P and Ganapaty S. Studies on hypoglycaemic and wound healing activities of Lanata camara Linn. Journal of Natural Remedies. 2001; 1(2): 105-110.

167.    Patricia E and Alex L. A comparisons of wound healing following treatment with Lavendula x allardii honey or essential oil. Phytotherapy Research. 2006; 20: 755-757.

168.    Mandawagde SD and Patil KS. Wound healing potential of some active principles of Lawsonia alba Lam. Leaves. Ind. J. Pharm. Sci. 2003; 65(4): 390-394. 

169.    Sakarkar DM and Sakarkar UM. Wound healing properties of Henna leaves. Natural Products Radiance. 2004; 3(6): 406-412.

170.    Nayak B and Godvin Isitor. The evidence based wound healing activity of Lawsonia inermis. Phytotherapy Research. 2006; 21: 827-831.

171.    Manjunatha BK and Vidya SM. Wound healing activity of Leucas hirta. Indian  Journal of  Pharmaceutical  Sciences. 2008; 68: 380-384.

172.    Saha K, Mukherkee PK, Das J, Pal M and Saha BP. Wound healing activity of Leucas lavandulaefolia Rees. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1997; 56(2): 139-144.             

173.    Fujita N, Sakaguchi I, Kobayashi H, Ikeda N, Kato Y, Minamino M, et al.An extract of the root of Lithospermum erythrorhison accelerates wound healing in diabetic mice. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 2003; 26(3): 329-335.

174.    Manjunatha BK and Krishna V. Wound healing activity of Lycopodium serratum. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical  Sciences. 2007; 69(2): 283-287.

175.    Hatapakki BC, HUkkeri VI and Patil DN. Wound healing activity of aerial parts of Merremia tridentate. Indian Drugs. 2004; 41(9): 523.

176.    Sharma S, Sharma MC, Kohli DV and Chturvedi SC. Formulation evaluation, wound healing stydies of bezene-95% absolute ethanol extract of leaves of Momordica charantia. Journal of Optoelectronics and Biomedical Materials. 2009; 1(4): 375-378.

177.    Nayak BS, Sandiford S and Maxwell A. Evaluation of wound healing activity of ethanolic extract of Moringa citrifolia L. leaf. Advanced Access Publi. 2009; 6(3): 351-356.

178.    Udupa SL, Udupa AL and Kularni DR. Studies on the anti-inflammatary and wound healing properties of Moringa oleifera and Aegle marmeolus. Fitoterapia. 2005; 65: 119-123.

179.    Rathi B, Patil PA and Baheti AM. Evaluation of aqueous extracts of pulp and seed of Moringa oleifera for wound healing in albino rats. J. Nat. Remed. 2005; 4(2): 145.

180.    Rathi B, Bodhankar SL and Baheti AM. Evaluation of aqueous leaves extracts of Moringa oleifera Linn for wound healing in albino rats. Indian J Exp.Bio. 2006; 44: 898-901.

181.    Hukeri VI, Nagathan CV, Karadi RV and Patil BS. Antipyretic and wound healing activity of Moringa oleifera Linn in rats. Indian J Pharm Sci. 2006; 68: 124-126.

182.    Adikwu MU and Nnamani PO. A Study of the wound healing activity of neomycin-loaded mucuna gum and porcin mucin gel. Journal of Pharmac. Research. 2007; 6: 173-175.

183.    Gore MA and Akolekar D. Evaluation of Banana leaf dressing for partial thickness burn wounds, Burns. 2003; 29(5): 487-492.

184.    Agarwal PK, Singh A, Gourav K, Goel S, Khanna HD and Goel RK. Evaluation of wound healing activity of extract of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. Paradisiaca) in rats. Indian J Exp.Bio. 2009; 47: 32-40.

185.    Osuagwa FC, Oladejo OW, Imosemi IO, Adewoyin BA,  Aiku A, Ekpo OE, et al. Wound healing activities of methanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum leaf in wistar rats- a preliminary study. Afr. J. Med. Sci. 2004; 33(1): 23-26.

186.    Udupa SL, Shetty S, Udupa AL and Somayaji SN. Effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. on normal and dexamethasone suppressed wound healing. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 2006; 44(1): 49-54.

187.    Udupa S, Shetty S and Udupa A. Evaluation of antioxidant and wound healing effect of alcoholic and aqueous extrac of Ocimum sanctum Linn in rats. Evid Based Comple. Alter. Med. 2008; 5: 95-98.

188.    Goel A, Kumar S, Singh DK and Bhalia AK. Wound healing potential of Ocimum sanctum Linn with induction of tumour necrosis factor. Ind. J. Exp. Biol. 2010; 48: 402-06.

189.    Park EH and Chun MJ. Wound healing activity of Opuntia ficus-indica. Fitoterapia. 2001 72(2): 165-167.

190.    Taranalli AD, Tipare SV, Shivkumar and Torgal SS. Wound healing activity of Oxalis corniculata whole plant extract in rats. Ind. J. Ph. Sci. 2004; 66:444-446.

191.    Choi S. Epidermis prolferative effect of the Panax ginseng ginsenoside Rb2. Arch Pharm Res. 2002; 25(1): 71-76.

192.    Nayak BS, Vinutha B, Geeta B and Sudha B. Experimental evaluation of Pentas lanceolata flowers for wound healing activity in rats. Fitoterapia. 2005; 76(7-8): 671-675.

193.    Villegas LF, Marcalo A, Martin J, Fernandez ID, Maldonado H, Vaisberg AJ, et al. (+)-epi-Alpha-bisabolol is the wound healing principle of Piperomia galiodes: investigation of the in vivo wound-healing activity of related terpenoides. J. Nat. Prod. 2001; 64(10): 1357-59.

194.    Okoli CO, Ezike AC, Akah PA, Udegbunam SO and Okoye TC. Studies on wound healing and antiulcer activities of extract of aerial parts of Phyllanthus niruli L. (Euphorbiaceae). Am. J. Pharm.Toxicol. 2009; 4(4): 118-126.

195.    Mankani KL, Krishna V, Manjunath BK, Vidya SM, Singh J, Manohar YN, et al. Evaluation of Wound healing activity of Pterocarpus marsupium stem bark. Indian Drugs. 2005; 42 (7): 432-436.

196.    Manjunatha BK. Studies on wound healing potency of Pterocarpus santalinus an endangered medicinal plant. Indian Drugs. 2005; 42(12): 819-823.

197.    Rakesh R, Chattopadhyay S, Bhatacharyya S, Bandyopadhyay D and Chatterjee SK.  Exploring anti-inflammatary and wound healing effect of Piper betle leaf extract in experimental animal models. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2004; 36(3): 198.

198.    Meenakshi S, Raghavan G, Virendranath S, Ajaykumar R and Shanta M. Antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activity of Plagiochasma appendiculatum. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 107(1): 67-72.

199.    Kuppast IJ and Kusum S. Wound healing activity of Polianthes tuberosa bulb extracts. Indinn Journal of  Natural Products. 2002; 22(2): 10-13.

200.    Divakar MC, Devi LS, Kumar SP and Rao SB. Study on wound healing property of Polyscias scutellaria leaf saponins. Indian Journal of Natural Products. 2001; 17(2): 37-42.

201.    Rashed AN, Afifi FU and Disi AM. Simple evaluation of the wound healing activity of a crude exract of portulaca oleraceae L. (growing in Jordan), in Mus musculus JV-1. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2003; 88 (2-3): 131-136.

202.    Martha PGR and Vargas SR. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing potential of Prosthechea michuacana in rats. Phcog. Mag. 2009; 4(19): 219-225.

203.    Murthy KN, Reddy VK, Veigas JM and Murthy UD. Study on wound healing activity of Punica gratum peel. J. Med. Food. 2004; 7(2): 256-259.

204.    Fernandez O, Capdevila JZ, Dalla G and Melchor G. Efficacy of Rhizophora mangle aqueous bark extract in the healing of open surgical wounds. Fitoterapia. 2002; 73: 564-568.

205.    Karodi R, Jadhav M, Rub R and Bufna A. Evaluation of Wound healing activity of a crude extract of Rubia cardifolia L. ( Indian madder) in mice. Indian J Applied Research in Natural Products.2009; 2(2): 12-18.

206.    Pesin I, Koca U, Keles H and Akkoi EK. Wound healing activity of Rubus sanctus schreber (Rosaceae): Preclinical study in animal models. eCAM. 2009; 1-7.

207.    Ganachari MS,  Kumar S and Patel A. Wound healing activity of Saussurea lappa roots. Indian Drugs. 2005; 42(5): 295-298.

208.    Stevenson PC, Simmonds MS, Sampson J, Houghton PJ and Grice P. Wound healing activity of irridoid glycosides from Scrophularia nodosa. Phytother. Res. 2002; 16(1): 33-35.

209.    Kiran K and Asad M. Wound healing activity of Sesamum indicum L seed and oil in rats. Indian J Exp. Biol.2008; 46: 777-782.

210.    Suzuki T, Tada H, Sato E and Sagae Y. Application of sweet potato fibre to skin wound in rat. Biol. Pharm. Bull. 1996; 19(7): 977-983.

211.    Furzana S, Reberan S, Mahammad A, Syediqbal A and Navaid Z. Healing potential of cream containing extract of Sphaeranthus indicus on dermal wound in guinea pigs. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 107 (2): 161-163.

212.    Gisley CL, Andreia CCS, Celso VN, Benedito PD and Carlos PD.  Influence of extracts of Stryphnodendron polyphyllum Mart and Styphnodendron obovatum Benth, on the cicatrisation of cutaneous wounds in rats. J. Ethnopharmacol. 2005; 99: 265-272.

213.    Manjunath BK, Vidya SM, Krishna V, Mankanil K, Singh JSD and Manohara YN. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and wound healing activity of the root of Swertia chirata. Phytotherapy research. 2006; 19(7): 871-875.

214.    Majumdar M, Nayeem N, Kamath JV and Asad M. Evaluation of Tectona grandis leaves for wound healing activity. Pak. J Pharm Sci. 2007; 20: 120-122.

215.    Lodhi S, Pawar RS, Jain AP and Singhai AK. Wound healing potential of Tephrosia purpurea pers. In rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2006; 108: 204-210.

216.    Choudhary M and Mengi S. Evaluation of phytoconstituents of Terminalia arjuna for wound healing activity in rats. Phytotherapy Research. 2006; 20: 799-805.

217.    Madhura MR and Sushma AM. Comparative effect of oral administration and topical application of alcoholic extract of Terminalia arjuna bark on incision and excision wound in rats. Fitoterapia. 2003; 74: 553-558.

218.    Choudhary GP. Wound healing activity of the ethanolic extract of Terminalia bellirica Roxb. Fruits. Nat. Prod. Radiance. 2008; 7(1): 19-21.

219.    Suguna L, Singh S, Sivkumar P, Sampath P and Chandrakasan G. Influence of Terminalia chebula on dermal wound healing in rats. Phytother Res. 2002; 16(3): 227-231.

220.    Nagappa AN and Cheriyan B. Wound healing activity of the aqueous extract of Thespesia populnea fruit. Fitoterapia. 2001; 72(5): 503-506.

221.    Dursun N, Liman N, Ozyazgan I, Gunes I and Saraymen R. Role of Thymus oil in burn wound healing. J. Burn Care Rehabil. 2003; 24(6): 395-399.

222.    Shanbhag T, Shenoy S and Rao MC. Wound healing profile of Tinospora cordifolia. Indian Drugs. 2005; 42(2): 217-221.

223.    Kar DM and Mohanty A. Antimicrobial and wound healing properties of Toddlia asiatica. Indian Journal of pharmaceutical Sciences.  2005; 67(2): 220-223.

224.    Samy RP, Gopalkrishnakone P, Sarumathi M and Ignacimuthu S. Purification of antibacterial agents from Tragia involucrate- A Popular tribal medicine for wound healing. Fitoterapia. 2006; 77: 300-302.

225.    Meenakshi SM and Ranjana N. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Tragia plukenetii: A preclinical study in albino rats. Indian Drugs. 2005; 46(1): 69-72.

226.    Udupa SL, Udupa AL and Kulkarni DR. Influence of Tridax procumbens on lysyl oxidase activity and wound healing. Planta-Med. 1991; 57(4): 325-327.

227.    Yaduvanshi B, Mathur R, Velpandian T and Gupta SK. Comparative evaluation of wound healing action of topical Tridax procumbens and VEGE in mice. Indian J Pharmacol. 2004; 36(3): 192-203.

228.    Taranalli AD and Juppast IJ. Study of wound healing activity of seeds Trigonella foenum in rats. Indian Journal of pharmaceutical Sciences. 1996; 58(3): 117-119.

229.    Manjunath BK, Vidya SM, Rashmi KV and Mankanil KL. Evaluation of wound healing potency of Vernonia arborea. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2005; 37(4): 223-226.

230.    Leite SN, Palhano G, Almedia S and Biavatti MW. Wound healing activity and systemic effects of Vernonia scorpoides extract in guinea pig. Fitoterapia. 2002; 73(6): 496-500.

231.    Sarma SP, Aithal KS, Srinivasan KK, Udupa AL, Kumar V,   Kulkarni DR, et al. Anti-inflammatary and wound healing activities of the crude alcoholic extracts and flavonoides of Vitex leucoxylon.  Fitoterapia. 1990; 61(3): 263-265.

232.    Patro CP and Sahu PK. Antipyretic and wound healing activity of aqueous extracts of leaves of Vitex pinnata. Indian Drugs. 2005; 44(7): 532-534.

233.    Khanna S, Venojarvi M, Roy S, Sharma N, Trikha P, Bagechi D, et al. Dermal wound healing properties of redox-active grape seed proanthocyanidins. Free. Radic. Biol Med. 2002; 33(8): 1089-1096.

234.    Veerapur VP, Srinivasa MBH, Kumar MS, Patra S, Rao PG and Srinivasan KK. Effect of ethanolic extracts of Wrightia tintoria bark on wound healing in rats. J. Nat. Remed 2004; 4(2): 155.

 

 

 

 

 

Received on 21.07.2010          Modified on 01.08.2010

Accepted on 08.08.2010         © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 4(2): February 2011; Page 203-213