Mediating Effect of Self-Efficacy in Relations of Social Elderly Care Facilities Social Worker's Role Conflict and Organization Effectiveness

 

Jeonug-Yeoul Kim*

Department of Addiction Rehabilitation and Counseling, Chongshin University, 143 Sogang-dong Dongji-gu Seoul, 06988, Korea

*Corresponding Author E-mail: jykim@chongshin.ac.kr

 

ABSTRACT:

Background/Objectives: The purpose of this study is to explain mediating effect of Self-efficacy between role conflict and organization effectiveness of social workers in elderly nursing homes.

Methods/Statistical analysis: Data of this study were collected from social workers working in long-term elderly nursing homes through survey method. This study used reliability, correlation analysis, and regression analysis by using the SPSS 21.0 statistical program as a quantitative research method for 306 social workers. The sampling method was a random sampling method, which is a non-probabilistic sampling method.

Findings: Result of this analysis shows that self-efficacy partially mediating between Role conflict and organization effectiveness.

Improvements/Applications: It is expected that organization effectiveness will improve if social workers are provided training programs to enhance their self-efficacy, when they have difficulty with role conflict.

 

KEYWORDS: Role conflict, organization effectiveness, Self-efficacy, Social workers, Elderly care facilities.

 

 


1. INTRODUCTION:

The number of Elderly nursing homes is increasing as Korea is becoming an aging society1. For this increase of Elderly nursing homes, it is necessary that quality of organizations and quality of social workers should improve in a balanced way. This is because the social welfare organization is not an organization that seeks for-profit but rather an organization that tries to solve the needs of the welfare of the human being. As a result, many clients depend more on the social welfare organization to ask for help2.

 

It is very important to create an environment in which the social workers can exercise their competence because the subject providing the welfare service in the social welfare organization of the elderly having such a considerable capacity is a social worker. This is a research to improve organization effectiveness by showing the mediating effect between role conflict and organization effectiveness of Social workers in Elderly nursing home.

 

2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND:

2.1. Role Conflict:

Role conflict means the recognition of incompatible role expectation between the role senders and the role players3. It occurs when the job-demands are incompatible with employee's standards, values and task requirements or their job demand, employee's behavior against their personal moral values4. Role conflict was also defined as pressure level of a persona experienced in a role that is incompatible with pressures of another role5.When the role conflict rises, role conflict may influence employee's stress level and cause decrease of job-satisfaction, and it can also occur interpersonal relation problems with co-workers, emotional instability and higher tension. There is a negative correlation between role conflict and recognition of organizational effectiveness and also job satisfaction6 and there is a positive correlation between role conflict and job instability and turnover7. Miles also found that role conflict can influence tension involved in tasks, job dissatisfaction, unfavorable attitude to the role sender and job performances8.Thus, role conflict degrade the job satisfaction and organization-engagement in consequence of increasing job stresses and tensions involved in tasks, occurring emotional instability and tension with co-workers.

 

2.2. Self-efficacy:

Self-efficacy has been defined in many ways with various scholars. Bandura explained that self-efficacy is people's beliefs about their capabilities to produce designated levels of performance that exercise influence over events that affect their lives8. Kanfer and Hagerman19 defined that the self-efficacy is a complicated cognitive judgment of capability to organize and practice activities on demand for achieving goals. Wood, Mento and Locke10 also defined that Self-efficacy, which is originated from the beliefs of self-overall capability, is a personal evaluation of ability to carry out special behaviors to cope with task situations. Self-efficacy is people's motivational belief of their ability to perform successfully in various situations and is a certain degree of assurance whether people are able to practice effectively based on different tasks and situations11.

 

Therefore, overall various ideas of Self-efficacy were defined as the people's belief of capability which people experience while they carry out their tasks to accomplish goals or performance of organizations. A research of workers in elderly medical welfare facilities shows that workers who have higher job satisfaction is likely to have higher self-efficacy12. People who have strong self-efficacy think their job positively, feel less stressful and tend to raise their job satisfaction13. When facing a situation, people who consider that they have capability to deal with it show coping behavior with confidence, so self-efficacy can influence not only behaviors currently in progress but also behaviors in the future. Internally perceived self-efficacy influences on and is influenced by learning behavior, pattern of thinking, emotion, selection of environment.  However, self-efficacy doesn't operate in some ways like individual situation and independent disposition. Accomplished situation is related to numerous unexpected obstacles, operating in different ways for a certain situation or a person.   In other words, even in a same level of difficulty, efficacy expectations of different individuals differ in several dimensions like magnitude level, strength and generality14.

 

The strength of self-efficacy is related to assurance degree of individual who has potential that to carry out given difficult tasks successfully. Strength level decide whether individuals persevere in their coping efforts despite difficult tasks or not, as a cause of durability of self-efficacy in difficult situations.

 

2.3. Organization Effectiveness:

Definition of organization effectiveness can be classified into outcome-oriented conception focused on goal achievement of organization and process-oriented conception focused on development of organization, and pursuit of resources related to survival15. Organization effectiveness is a degree of long-term and short-term goal achievement, and it is to reflect strategic environment factors to achieve goals and features of life-cycle stages16. It is an outcome variable of beliefs, attitudes, behaviors of members, and the conception which represent effective operation and management of organization including not only goals of organizations but also goals of members17. Scott18 emphasizes importance of organization effectiveness recently because organizations need to improve multi-dimensional outcomes to survive in growing competitive society and also explains organization effectiveness is evaluation criteria that shows how much organizations or their members correspond with some effectiveness criteria demanded for effective operation and management of organization.

 

2.4. Relations with Role conflict, Self-efficacy and Organization effectiveness:

A person with strong self-efficacy has positive perceptions on jobs and gets less stressed, and can lower role conflict level14. Salomon19 has found that person who has higher self-efficacy invested more self-rated mental effort and workload to material that was perceived as difficult and invested less effort and workload to material that was perceived as easy during learning through his experimental research. In other words, Individuals who have strong self-efficacy tend to choose more challenging tasks, repeat it more frequently, multiply volume of effort and persistence and then show higher achievement. Regarding preceding research analysis, self-efficacy is expected to do a mediating role between role conflict and organization effectiveness.

 

3. MATERIALS AND METHODS:

3.1. Research design:

This study examined mediating effect of the self-efficacy between role conflict and organization effectiveness of social workers working in long-term nursing homes through quantitative research.

 

3.2. Subject to study and data collection:

The questionnaires of this survey were distributed and collected from 360 social workers working at 30 long-term nursing homes located in Seoul from 1st Nov. to 10th Nov. 2011, and 306 workers answered questionnaires were examined. Random sampling which is non-probability sampling is used as sampling method for this survey.

 

3.3. Method of Research

Questionaries of MacKenzieet al.20 's research were used for scale of role conflict. To measure self-efficacy scale, questionaries which Kim Young Ja21 has developed were used. Kim Yang Soo22 and Kim Young Ja21's questionaries of organization effectiveness scale were also used for this study.

 

4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

4.1. Correlation of Role conflict, Self-efficacy and Organization effectiveness:

Table 1 shows the relationship between role conflict, self-efficacy, and organizational efficiency. Correlation between Role conflict and Self-efficacy indicated negative correlation (-.218) and self-efficacy decreased when role conflict increased. Correlation between Role conflict and organization effectiveness showed negative correlation (-.571), and also organization effectiveness decreased when role conflict increased. Correlation between self-efficacy and organization effectiveness indicated positive correlation (.665) and organization effectiveness increased with higher self -efficacy.

 

Table 1: Correlation of Role conflict, Self-efficacy and Organization effectiveness

Model

Role conflict

Self-efficacy

Organization effectiveness

Role conflict

1

Self-efficacy

-.218***

1

Organization effectiveness

-.571***

.665***

1

*p<.05, **p<.01, ***p<.001

 

4.2. Mediating Effect of Self-efficacy between Role conflict and organization effectiveness:

Table 1 shows the relationship between role conflict, self-efficacy, and organizational efficiency. Correlation to find out the mediating effect of self-efficacy between Role conflict of organization and organization effectiveness, the results of mediating effect verification which were conducted by Baron and Kenny23 are shown on Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4. Multicollinearity between autocorrelation of dependent variable and independent variable was analyzed before mediating effect verification procedure. Durbin-Watson index value was 1.316, which means independent, no autocorrelation.VIF was 1.000, less than 10, there's no multicollinearity between independent variables and mediating effect verification were processed.

 

Table 2: Autocorrelation

R

R-Square

Adjusted R-Square

Standard error of estimate

Durbin-Watson

.532(a)

.283

.281

0.39327

1.316

 


Table 3: Multicollinearity

Unstandardized coefficient

Standardized coefficient

t

P-value

Co linearity statistic

B

Standard error

Beta

Tolerance limit

VIF

(Constant)

2.405

.102

23.641

.000

Role conflict

.337

.031

.532

10.960

.000

1.000

1.000

 


Step 1 of mediating effect verification showed role conflict (p<.001), which is independent variable, affected significantly on self-efficacy. The higher role conflict (B=.337) was the higher Self-efficacy was. Coefficient of determination of Self-efficacy(R 2) was 28.3%. At Step 2 of verification, role conflict (p<.001) which is independent variable affected significantly on organization effectiveness.

 

The higher role conflict (B=.630) was, the higher organization effectiveness was. Effectiveness Coefficient of determination of organization effectiveness(R 2) was 52.7%. Role conflict (B=.450 p<.001) was significant and Coefficient of regression dropped from .630 to .450, self-efficacy partially mediating between Role conflict and organization effectiveness at Step 3.

 

Table 4: mediating effectiveness

Step1

Step2

Step3

Self-efficacy

Organization effectiveness

Organization effectiveness

(Constant)

2.405***

1.412***

.127***

Role conflict

.337***

.630***

.450***

Self-efficacy

.535***

R 2

.283

.527

.635

F

120.117***

338.504***

264.109***

*** P<.001

 

5. CONCLUSION:

The relationship between role conflict and self-efficacy was negatively correlated with social workers in long-term care facilities in Seoul. The relationship between role conflict and organizational effectiveness was negatively correlated. The higher the role conflict, the lower the organizational effectiveness. The correlation between self-efficacy and organizational effectiveness was statistically correlated. The higher the self-efficacy, the higher the organizational effectiveness. Upon research conducted for social workers working at long-term elderly nursing homes in Seoul, the result of this research indicates that self-efficacy partially mediating in the relation between role conflict and organization effectiveness Therefore, It is expected that organization effectiveness will improve if social workers are provided training programs to enhance their self-efficacy, when they have difficulty with role conflict.

 

6. ACKNOWLEDGMENT:

The research was supported by the research fund of Chongshin University.

 

7. REFERENCES:

1.       Ministry of Health and Welfare, Status of Welfare Facilities for the Elderly in 2015, 2015, pp.1-1028. http://www.mohw.go.kr/front_new/jb/sjb030301vw.jsp?PAR_MENU_ID=03andMENU_ID=0321andCONT_SEQ=324013andpage=1

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8.       Miles, R. H, An empirical test of casual inference between role perceptions of conflict and ambiguity and various personal outcomes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 1975, 60(3), pp. 334-339.

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13.     Taylor, M. S., and Tajen, Selection for Training: Tabulating Equipment Operators, Personnel Psychology, 1984, 1, pp. 341-348.

14.     Bandura, A, A Self-Efficacy: Toward a Unifying Theory of Behavior Change, Psychological Review, 1977, 82(2), pp. 191-215.

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16.     Robbins, S. P, Organization Theory: The Structure and Design of Organizations, Eaglewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1983.

17.     Cameron, K. S. and Whetten, D. A, Organizational effectiveness. New York: Academic Press, 1983. 

18.     Scott, W. R, Organizations: Rational, Natural and Open Systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall. 5th ed, 2003.

19.     Salomon, G, Television is easy and print is tough: The differential investment of mental effort in learning as a function of perceptions and attributions, Journal of Educational Psychology, 1984, 76(4), pp.647-658.

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Received on 20.06.2017          Modified on 18.07.2017

Accepted on 11.08.2017        © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(9): 2863-2866.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00504.2