Algae- Pollution Indicator and Control

 

Rajakumari. K*, Ridhanya. J

Department of Bio-Engineering, School of Engineering, Vels Institute of Science,

Technology and Advanced Studies (VISTAS), Pallavaram, Chennai-117, Tamil Nadu, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: rajikumari91@gmail.com

 

ABSTRACT:

Pollution is something that causes harmful effect on humans, animals, marine organisms and many factors are involved in the control of pollution. Interestingly, algae involves in the control of pollution. Algae are mostly aquatic and found in marine habitat. They are classified on basis of pigmentation such as green algae, brown algae, yellow-green algae, euglenophyta, golden brown, red algae and fire algae. It plays an important role in stabilizing carbon-di-oxide level and used in food supplements. Their mode of nutrition is an autotrophic and has the ability to perform photosynthesis. Algae contains an extensive bioactive compounds like dietary fiber, carotenoids, proteins, auxins, cytokinins. Colonies of algae which grow out of control causes an algal bloom. Some bloom produce toxin effects on fish, marine mammals. In certain cases some algae like aphanizomenon, microcystis acts as water pollutant.

 

KEYWORDS: Micro algae, Bioactivities, Pollution control, Pollution indicator, Water pollutant.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

The idea of wastewater treatment utilizing microalgae was proposed by Oswald in the 1950 and the idea was later extended to propose utilization of this framework for vitality creation through reaping and usage of algal biomass[1,2,3]. The advancement in marine biotechnology has their own mark on producing natural marine products. The bioactivity includes pharmocological and biochemical studies[4]. Cyanobacteria consists of many features and metabolism produces nitrogenous compounds. They differ morphologically and they are conical, unicellular in shapes[5]. Mass culture of algae in squander water can fundamentally add to the administration of freshwater biological systems by giving an all the more ecologically solid way to deal with decreasing the eutrophication. Consolidating algal frameworks into regular wastewater treatment can possibly improve the water nature of the profluent by diminishing the supplement and metal burdens into freshwater biological systems[6].

 

Metals are brought into the biological systems because of enduring of soil and shakes, from volcanic emissions and from an assortment of human exercises including mining, handling and utilization of metals and additionally substances containing metal contaminants[7]. Industrial discharge of waste has prompted high metal fixations on the earth, which are all in all 100—1000 overlap higher than those in the Earth's outside layer, and locally, living creatures can be presented to considerably more significant levels[8]. Mercury is a component and it was constantly present in the earth, worldwide human movement has prompted a critical increment of mercury discharged into the climate, oceanic condition and land[9]. Ongoing investigations indicated that suitable techniques for algal determination and development are utilized, it is conceivable to utilize microalgae to create the O2 required by acclimatized microscopic organisms to biodegrade dangerous poisons, for example, polycyclic sweet-smelling hydrocarbons, phenolics, and natural solvents[10]. Microalgae have been demonstrated to be productive in expelling dangerous metals, phosphorus and nitrogen from a wide assortment of wastewaters[11,12,13]. In algal wastewater treatment, the subsequent slop with algal biomass is vitality rich which can be additionally prepared to make biofuel or other important items[14]. This incorporated wastewater treatment and biofuel generation would thus be able to profit the environment. There are studies of algal development in modern wastewaters and agriculture[15,16,17]. Anabaena was the most lethal and non-harmful blossoms and it was available in every neurotoxic sample. Measurable affiliations were found among hepatotoxicity and incidence of Microcystis aeruginosa, M. wesenbergii, Anabaena spiroides, M. viridis and Anabaena flos-aquae[18]. Development in the human populace, contamination, overexploitation of land and absence of freshwater will support utilization of seaweeds[19]. Algae acts as sustainable power source. This review paper will increment natural consciousness of issues encompassing the creation of algal growth and will help the algal growth industry create to its maximum capacity[20].

 

TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS:

Penostains F-1 isolated from strained species penicillium and originally isolated from enteromorpha intestinalis and the compounds present in it exhibits cytotoxicity towards p388 cells[21]. A brominated ether isolated from Odonthalia corymbifera inactivates alpha-glucosidase[22]. Methoxybifurcarenone shows an antibacterial and antifungal activity isolated from specimen Cystoseira tamariscifolia[23]. The green alga Ulvella lactata acts as a precursor of 2,4,6-tribromophenol and proposal to that of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid[24]. Sansalvamide showed cytotoxicity towards sk mel 2 cell lines, colo205 and inhibition of molluscum contagiosum virus topoisimoerase[25]. Amphidinium sp. contains colopsinols A-C exhibits cytotoxicity in which colopsinols-A inhibits DNA polymerase alpha, beta. Colopsinols consists of three ether rings, sulfate ester, glucoside moiety isolated from marine dinoflagellate[26,27]. Constantinea simplex and farlowia mollis shows antiviral activity which inhibits the herpes simplex virus. These are more active in prophylactic activity not therapeutically[28]. Mixes and concentrates with hostile to HIV movement are additionally dynamic against different retroviruses, for example, herpes simplex infection (HSV), yet the measure of antiviral action fluctuates with the compound and the infection[29]. Cell reinforcement and anticancer impact of fucoidan confined from dark colored ocean growth Sargassum polycystum was examined cancer prevention agent properties were controlled by DPPH rummaging the outcomes exhibited that the segregated fucoidan from S. polycystum had powerful cell reinforcement and anticancer properties[30].

 

POLLUTION INDICATOR AND CONTROL:

The utilization of marker creatures to think about follow metal contamination is inspected, with specific reference to the utilization of macroalgae, bivalve molluscs and teleosts. It is recommended that the macroalgae and bivalve molluscs are the most proficient and solid pointers created to the present time. However, the utilization of marker living beings presents organic factors which are absent in physico-concoction investigations of water or residue[31]. Grouping of zinc, copper, lead, cadmium and mercury were resolved in the darker alga Ascophyllum nodosum from two Norwegian fjords, Trondheimsfjord and Hardangerfjord. In the two zones checked nearby varieties in overwhelming metal fixations in the kelp. The outcomes demonstrate that follow component examination of kelp is a valuable and cheap strategy for assessing the condition of a marine beneficiary with respect to substantial metal sullying[32]. The broad dispersion of a few marine macroalgal animal groups makes them a potential bioindicator device for observing existing degrees of various sorts of marine toxins in the district. Results demonstrate a solid bioaccumulation potential in these species for both overwhelming metals and hydrocarbons[33]. The high take-up of metals in green growth (Enteromorpha intestinalis and Ulva lactuca) and algal growth (Dictyota bartayresiana and Padina gymnospora) recommended that these green growths might be utilized as potential biomonitors for overwhelming metal contamination. Three contamination markers Geochemical Index, Enrichment Factor and Contamination Factor were determined to decide the level of metal contamination in the marine coastline and the commitment of anthropogenic impact[34]. An endeavor has been made to utilize the development rate in culture of a portion of the algae for sign of contamination. Ulva lactua has a high potential starting here of view due to the simplicity with which it very well may be refined and furthermore as a result of its responses to contamination by sewage[35]. Green algae (Chlamydomonas sp. Chlorella sp.) acts as promising adsorbents for copper and zinc. Immobilization of the algae with sodium alginate made the partition and reuse of the algal globules extremely simple. Immobilization expanded the biosorption contrasted and free cells[36]. Spirulina platensis assume a significant job in the natural destiny of poisonous metals and metalloids with physico-compound and affecting changes among solvent and insoluble stages. Spirulina platensis fast cadmium adsorption rate and made them appropriate for the expulsion of cadmium in wastewater[37]. The take-up of uranium by C. regularis was quick, and was not all that influenced by light, temperature, and medications with metabolic inhibitors. It relies on the physical adsorption on the cell surface, however not upon the natural movement, and that uranium in the algal cells was combined with the ligands, which had the option to be effectively subbed with EDTA[38]. Different metals including the substantial metals can be expelled from effluents by bioaccumulation and biosorption by cyanobacteria. A portion of the effluents like molasses-based refinery effluents, may have an unsuitable shading segment which additionally must be expelled and a portion of the cyanobacteria can help in this procedure[39]. Australian algae (Ecklonia and Durvillaea potatorum) based biosorbents (ER95Ca and DP95Ca) contains metal expulsion properties which removes heavy metals from water[40].

 

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS:

Absorption of heavy metals by microbial cells has been perceived as a potential option in contrast to existing advances for expelling substantial metals of waste waters from industry[41]. The biosorbent is set up by exposing biomass to different procedures like granulation, pre-treatment and immobilization. This innovation out-plays out its antecedents because of its cost viability as well as in being ecofriendly[42]. By utilizing the chlorophyll development of the algae, for instance, it was conceivable to evaluate spectrophotometrically all the nitrogen content in water gathered from water system giving us a thought on eutrophication levels[43]. The decision of algae to be utilized in wastewater treatment is controlled by their power against wastewater and by their productivity to develop in and to take up supplements from waste water[44]. Decrease in ooze Formation. Algae contain over half of oil in its biomass. They give a lot more significant returns of biomass and fuel[45]. The measures of uranium taken up by C. regularis additionally quickly diminished with concentration of sodium hydrogencarbonate in the uranium[46]. Both living and dead cells created by microorganisms can be powerful metal gatherers[47]. Mercury contamination in oceanic condition are barometrical statement, urban releases, agrarian material overflow, mining, petroleum derivative use and mechanical releases, consuming of coal, and pharmaceutical generation[48]. Eutrophication is one of a few systems by which poisonous algae growth seem to be expanding in degree and length in numerous areas[49]. Parameters like pH, light, lake profundity, strategies for blending, CO2 conveyance influence the biomass profitability[50].

 

FUTURE PERSPECTIVES:

The particular highlights of algal water treatment can be acknowledged as a noteworthy minimal effort options in contrast to complex costly treatment especially for cleansing of metropolitan drinking waters. The numerous parts of metal-microorganism collaborations stay unexploited in biotechnology and further advancement and application is fundamental.

 

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Received on 11.01.2020           Modified on 24.02.2020

Accepted on 03.04.2020         © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(1):523-526.

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00095.0