Extraction and Phytochemical screening of Tagetes erecta L. Flower extract
Ankur Agrawal, Nitesh Jain, Rohit Singhal
Faculty of Pharmacy, Oriental University, Jakhya, Indore, Madhya Pradesh – 453555.
*Corresponding Author E-mail: email@example.com
Tagetes erecta L. is a widespread garden plant that is commonly known as the marigold, and it is widely used as a medicinal herb for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-edematous properties, which are important for phytotherapeutic, dermatological and cosmetic applications. Essential oil from marigold has been shown to be an effective free radical scavenger, and the ethanol extract is reportedly effective against parakeratosis. The present work was aimed to perform extraction and phytochemical screening of the extract. Results revealed that the extract was rich in flavonoids, alkaloids glycosides and steroids. The phytochemicals could be utilized for health benefit properties.
KEYWORDS: Tagetes erecta L, Flowers, Extract, Alkaloids, Glycosides.
Medicinal plants are used throughout the world, and the regulations defining their proper use, such as identification of the correct species and verification of the presence, purity and concentration of the required chemical compounds, are widely recognized. Herbal medicines are made from vegetal drugs, the processed products of medicinal species. Medicinal plants play vital roles in disease prevention and their promotion and use fit into all existing prevention strategies1. Marigold (Tagetes erecta) is an attractive and widely grown ornamental species of the family Asteraceae (Compositae)2. Members of the genus Tagetes are also of interest as sources of biologically active compounds3 and natural food colorants. In this context, the pigment extracted from T. erecta is used in the preparation of vegetable oils, pasta, bread, juices, mustard and milk derivatives4 , and is added to chicken feed in order to intensify the yellow coloration of broiler flesh and egg yolks5.
Tagetes erecta L. is a widespread garden plant that is commonly known as the marigold, and it is widely used as a medicinal herb for its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-edematous properties, which are important for phytotherapeutic, dermatological and cosmetic applications6,7. Essential oil from marigold has been shown to be an effective free radical scavenger, and the ethanol extract is reportedly effective against parakeratosis7,8. The present work is focused to perform phytochemical analysis of Tagetes erecta L. Flowers.
MATERIALS AND METHODS:
All the solvents used in the study were purchased from CDH, India. All the other chemicals used in the study were of analytical grade. Double distilled water was used in the study.
Collection and Identification of flowers:
The flowers of Tagetes erecta were obtained from local market, and it was authenticated by Dr. Noeline J. Pinto H.O.D. Dept of Botany, Stagnes College, Mangalore-2.
Processing of crude drug:
Thus obtained flowers were cleaned from dust and other materials, and then it was dried under the shade for 15 days. The dried flowers were pulverized in an electric grinder.
The powdered plant materials were subjected to maceration. The powederd material was soaked in 90% ethanol for four days. Stirring of the mixture was done twice daily. After the fourth day, the mixture was filtered and the marc was pressed. This process was repeated three times. The entire alcoholic fraction was combined and the ethanol was subjected for evaporation. The syrupy consistency material obtained was heated on the water bath until dry extract was obtained. Thus obtained ethanolic extract of flowers of Tagetes erecta was labeled and stored in the desiccator till further usage.
Preliminary Qualitative Phytochemical Analysis:
The ethanolic extract of flowers of Tagetes erecta were subjected to qualitative examination for different phytoconstituents like alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, proteins, saponins, terpenoids and steroids by using standard methods9.
To a few mg of ethanolic extract 5ml of distilled water, 2 M hydrocholoric acid was added until an acid reaction occurs. To this 1ml of Dragendroffs reagent was added. Formation of orange or orange red precipitate indicates the presence of alkaloids.
To 1ml ethanolic extract, few drops of Hager’s reagent were added. Formation of yellow precipitate confirms the presence of alkaloids.
To 1ml ethanolic extract,1.5ml v/v of hydrochloric acid was added . And few drops of Wagner Reagent were added. Yellow or browm prescription indicates the presence of alkaloids.
Few drops of the Mayer’s reagent were added to 1ml of ethanolic extract. Formation of pale yellow precipitate indicates the presence of alkolids.
To 2ml of ethanolic extract few drops of freshly prepared 20% alcoholic solution of alpha naphthol was added. 2ml of concentrated sulphuric acid was added through the sides of the test tube. Appearance of red-violet ring indicates the presence of carbohydrates, which disappears on addition of excess of alkali.
To 0.5ml of ethanolic extract 5ml of Benedict’s solution was added and heated. Formation of bricks red color indicates the presence of carbohydraytes.
To 2ml ethanolic extract 1ml of equal parts of felingsolutions . A and Fehling solution B was added and heated. Formation of red color indicates the presence of reducing sugar.
To 2ml of anthrone solution 0.5ml ethanolicextract wasadded. Formation of blue or green color indicates the presence of carbohydrates.
Shinodatest: To 0.5ml of ethanolic extract 10 drops of dilute hydrochloric acid followed by small piece of magnesium were added and heated. Formation of pink or raddish brown indicates the presence of flavoloids.
Liebermann- Burchard’s test:
Few mg of ethanolic extract was discovered in acetic anhydride. Heated, Cooled 1 ml of concentrated sulphuric acid was added along the sides of the test tube. Formation of green color indicates the presence of steroids.
1ml of concentrated sulphuric acid was added to the choloroform extract of drug alnong the sides of the test tube. Formation of red color in the choloroform layer indicates the presence of steroids.
Few mg of ethnolicexrtract was dissolved in acetic anhydride. Heated, cooled 1ml concentrated sulphuric acid was added along the sides of the test tube. Formation of green color indicates the presence of treiterpenoids.
To 1ml ethanolic extract, 5-8 drops of 10% w/v copper sulphate solution was added and heated. Formation of violet red color indicates the presence of proteins.
To 1ml of ethnolicextract, 5-6 drops of Milion’s reagent was added. Formation of white prescipiate which turns red heating indivctes the presence of proteins.
To test tube containing 5ml of ethanolicextract, a drops of solution bicarbonate was added. The test tube shken vigorously and left for 3 minute. Formation of honeycomb like froth indicates the presence of saponinis.
To 2ml of ethanolic extract, 2ml of lead acetate solution was added. Formation of white cloudy precipitate indicates the presence of tannins.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:
The results of phytochemical screening are shown in Table 1. The results indicate the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, steroids and carbohydrates in the extract.
Table 1: PhytochemicalScreening of Tagetes erecta L.
(+ represents the presence of particular phytochemical)
Thus, the outcomes of the present studies reflect the Tagetes erecta L. Extract to be rich in novel phytochemicals which could be responsible for biological activity.
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Received on 22.01.2021 Modified on 05.03.2021
Accepted on 07.04.2021 © RJPT All right reserved
Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2022; 15(1):285-287.