Study of Physicochemical Analysis of three varieties of C. papaya pulp


Naveen Chandra Talniya1, Riya Trehan2

1Department of Chemistry, Centre for Research Degree Programmes,

Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India.

2School of Chemical Engineering and Physical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail:



Fruits products belong to an essential class of foods that fulfils nutritive requirements including vitamins and minerals which are necessary for normal human being. The study was carried out to determine the physical and chemical analysis of varieties of pulp of papaya fruit (red and yellow skinned) purchased from kiosks at Lovely Professional University, Punjab (India) and green skin papaya fruit obtained from papaya tree of Kangra district, Himachal Pradesh. As per the study of analysis, it is found that pH and acidity (highest in yellow skinned & lowest in red skinned papaya fruit), while total soluble solids, total sugar rand reduced sugar (highest in green skinned & lowest in red skinned papaya fruit). The range of ascorbic acid content was 40 - 42 mg/100gm in all three varieties of papaya fruit.


KEYWORDS: C. papaya Linn, β-carotene, Ethanomedicine, Ascorbic acid, Reduced sugar.




Papaya is a member of the Caricaceae family, which includes four separate genera. In India, the genus Carica L. has four species, the most frequently farmed and well-known of which is Carica papaya1. C. papaya is also known as papaya (in English), Papita (Hindi) and Erandakarkati (Sanskrit) and is well known worldwide for its food and nutritional values2. Papayas were first introduced to the United States in the twentieth century, and Hawaii has been growing them since the 1920s, making it the country's largest producer3.  In traditional medicine, it is said to have antimicrobial, digestive, and diuretic properties4,5. It produces copious white latex and is surrounded by a terminal cluster of large and long leaves6. The C. papaya  not only serves as fruit but also as a food, cooking aid, and used as an ethanomedicine for prevention and treatment of broad-range of  diseases and disorders. The plant is a fast-growing, tall, usually unbranched tree or shrub with a trunk diameter of about 20cm.


The leaves, fruits, roots, and latex derived from the papaya plant are medicinally valuable portions for treatment; it is generally known for its dietary and nutritional properties around the world7. Papaya is a very important plant, rich source of nutrients, available throughout the year8 and is dominantly used in tropical Africa, Nigeria, Asia and it also has been identified as the 3rd largest produced plant worldwide. The economic and nutritional values of papaya plant have made it both a fruit and a vegetable as well9-11. Stomach problems, jaundice, gastritis, and liver issues are all treated with the unripe fruit. Pepsin, a protein-splitting enzyme that is used to tenderise meat, is found in papaya juice. Papaya aids with the digestion of proteins found in foods such as eggs, milk, meat, beans, and other legumes. Steroids, alkaloids, tannins, proteins, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenols, saponins, and volatile oils were found in the pulp, according to a proximate study12,13.  Papaya grows best in well aerated, well drained and in a soil which has rich organic matter and the pH of the soil would be in the range of 5.5-6.7. Due to water logging capacity of soil it often results in the death of tree within 3-4 days11. When immature the skin colour of papaya is usually green and when fully ripened it changes to fully reddish-orange. The colour change of fruit skin is an indicator of ripeness which is due to decrement in chlorophyll content and increment in the carotene content. The flesh colour of papaya fruit is determined mainly due to carotenoid pigments14.


Chemical and Biochemical analysis of C. papaya:

The precise and systematic chemical and biochemical traces of C. papaya parts different have analysed and examined. The papaya dried leaves examined for Ca2+, Cl-, K+, Li+, Mg2+ and Na+ suggest that the leaves contained high potential components curing the number of diseases1 and that the fruit showed K+ (223mg/100g) in excess of Ca2+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Na+, P and Zn2+ in a substantial amount. The energy content of papaya fruit is 200 kJ.100 g-1, retaining the view that it includes saccharose (48.3g), glucose (29.8g) and fructose (21.9g), respectively15. C. papaya pulp includes minerals such as Ca2+, Cu2+, Co2+, Fe3+, K+, Mg2+, Mn2+,  Na+, P, Zn2+, while Cd2+ and Pb3+ were absent.  However, fruit pulp contained the chemical compositions which include fat (1.29%), fiber (1.88%), moisture (10.65%), crude protein (13.63%), sugars (15.15%) and starch (43.28%)16.


Nutritional Assessment of C. papaya Linn:

As the nutritional and micronutrients deficiencies continues to be a worldwide problem. It was estimated from recent data’s that > 2 billion people are suffering from at least one or other form of deficiencies caused by micronutrients worldwide17.To increase the consumption of available food, their diversification could be valuable in the search of solution towards this hidden hunger18. Papaya fruit is rich in various micronutrients like vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and in β-carotene and pro-vitamin A.  Ascorbic acid (AA) is a water-soluble antioxidant that is found in abundance in fresh fruits and juices and is one of the most important contributions to the total antioxidant activity of fruits and vegetables. Getting adequate vitamin C in our diet by eating a variety of fruits and vegetables may help to minimise the chance of acquiring some of diseases high blood pressure, gallbladder disease, stroke, some cancers, and atherosclerosis19,20. Oranges, lemons, grapefruit, watermelon, papaya, strawberries, cantaloupe, mango, pineapple, raspberries, and cherries including Green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, broccoli, green and red peppers, cauliflower, and cabbage all contain vitamin C21.  Most of the fruits are seasonal and are not able in all seasons but C. papaya Linn. is an all season fruit22. Dairy products also contain various nutrients which include minerals as well as vitamins. Milk described as perfect food, is the major dairy product contains various nutrients and minerals in it. As milk contains different nutrients in it so it can be a good source of proteins and energy23. The intake of dairy and fruit juice products in our meals should be increased in various forms especially before and after the meal so as to improve the nutritional as well as the health conditions of the people. Thus, due to the production of Papaya shake (papaya juice-milk drink) it could be an optional method of increasing the consumption of various vitamins and minerals and reducing various losses. It meets to the requirement of various minerals and vitamins required by the human body. Our study focused to the acceptability of ripe papaya juice blended with milk and sugar. We analysed the quality of freshly prepared homemade juice of papaya with milk and sugar. The study will provide an alternative diversification in the use of papaya juice which could be used as safer drink which could be nutrient rich and provide solution to deficiency of micronutrients.



A mature and ripe C. papaya fruit (green and red skinned) was purchased from local kiosks of LPU while green skin papaya fruit obtained from papaya tree of Kangra district, desh. The fruit samples were kept in a refrigerator at 12o C until they were used. The chemicals were of analytical grade used in the experimental studies. The needed equipment include: Home-made blender, refractometer and pH meter.


Sample preparation:

The samples were peeled and the seeds were removed from papaya, then the slices of samples were blended in home-made blender to form homogenous samples.


Determination of Ph:

In order to determine the pH of the papaya juice, digital pH meter was used. The pH meter was calibrated using standard buffer solutions of pH 4.0 and 7.0.    


Total Soluble Solids (TSS):

The total soluble solids were measured using hand refractometer at room temperature according to method described by AOAC, 197024.


Titrable Acidity and Reducing Sugars:

They were measured according to the method described by AOAC, 198425.


Ascorbic Acid:

It was determined according to Ruck (1963)26.     


Titratable acidity:27

Extraction of papya juice:

10 g of C. papaya pulp was taken in distilled water and blended in a home-made blender. The blended pulp were then filtered and made its volume to a 100 ml by added distilled water.


Titration method:

10 mL of pulp solution in water was taken in conical flask and shaken vigorously with. 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein indicator. It was titrated against 0.1 N NaOH solution till end point appeared as permanent pink colour. The consumed NaOH solution was recorded and titratable acidity (%) was calculated as:




The fruit pulps of three varieties of papaya differed with respect to their physical and chemical parameters. The chemical composition of papaya varieties differed significantly as shown in Table 1. The pH values varied in all three varieties and highest 4.0 in yellow skinned whereas it is lowest in red skinned fruit. The TSS 13.0% was at the highest in pulp of green skinned papaya followed by yellow and red skinned fruit pulp in 10 % and 8% respectively. However, the acidity ranged between 1.90 - 2.10%, in terms of citric acid, being highest in yellow skinned and lowest in red skinned fruit pulp. T. sugar content varied from 6.90 - 8.87% and R. sugar content ranged from 3.40 - 5.65%. The range of Ascorbic acid content was 40 - 42mg/100gm of fruit pulp and is higher in yellow and red skinned papaya fruit pulp while it is lower in green skinned papaya fruit pulp.


Table 1: Physical and Chemical analysis of Papaya slices

Papaya variety




T. sugar

R. sugar

Ascorbic acid

Green skin







Yellow skin 







Red skin







Values having different superscript letters in columns and rows differ significantly (p ≤ 0.05)


From the obtained results, it came into light that the physicochemical parameters of different varieties of papaya varies differently from one another which can be due to the different genetic materials in different papaya and as each papaya took different time for getting fully ripened27,28. The variations found in the physicochemical composition of papaya varieties are consistent with the results obtained by the different researchers29,30. Our study comes to a conclusion that a C. papaya is having nutrients and may protect against a number of health conditions. The product of blend of juice from C. papaya fruit is safe for human consumption and good source of sugar content. The present study indicates that the papaya fruit (green, yellow or red skinned) may be suitable for canning and various beverages and food manufacturing purposes. It is recommended that intensive and integrated work is required to test other preservation methods.



The authors are gratefully acknowledging support of Lovely Professional University for providing infrastructure to carry out the presented study.



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Received on 30.06.2020            Modified on 27.03.2021

Accepted on 11.06.2021           © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm.and Tech 2022; 15(2):679-682.

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00112