Evaluation of dietary fiber from Borassus flabellifer tuber noodles for enhancing bowel movement- Optimization by using Response Surface Methodology

 

Sathya. K1*, K. Nagarajan2, H. Jayalakshmi1, S. Bharathi1

1Department of Biotechnology, Rajalakshmi Engineering College, Thandalam, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

2Department of Chemical Engineering, Rajalakshmi Engineering College,

Thandalam, Chennai, Tamilnadu, India.

*Corresponding Author E-mail: sathya.k@rajalakshmi.edu.in

 

ABSTRACT:

Abnormalities with a bowel movement are the major health problems worldwide and represent one of the main reasons for a digestive problem. Palmyra tubers are a root rich in fibers and can replenish bowel movement abnormalities. Palmyra tubers are packed with vitamins like B, C and during root heading seasons, the tubers are plenty. So, work was aimed to prepare fiber-rich noodles from Palmyra tubers for enhancing bowel movement. The objective of the study to determine the Physico-chemical properties of flours and to prepare noodles from these flours with a quality aspect like good taste, aroma, flavor, and texture, color, and appearance. The cooking quality parameters such as cooking time, cooking loss, and cooking yield were measured. The sensory analysis, nutritional analysis, moisture content, pH, Water Absorption Index, Water Solubility Index of the noodles were performed. The results showed that good quality noodles can be prepared from Palmyra tubers with high nutritional values. The microbial activity was almost negligible even after 90 days. It is understood that the noodles contain a high amount of fiber content (2.65g/100g), which facilitates the bowel movement.

 

KEYWORDS: Dietary supplement, Nutritional aspects, Palmyra tuber noodles, Design expert software, empirical equation.

 

 


INTRODUCTION:

World Health Organization (WHO) and the United States (US) Dietary supplement Health and Education Act (DSHEA) have defined dietary supplements as a product that supplement the diet and they includes minerals, amino acids, vitamins, herbs etc1. These dietary supplements is often concentrated in liquid, powder, capsule or pill form. Although the dietary foods are regulated by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) as foods, their regulation differs from drugs and other foods2. These dietary supplements is a product which contains dietary ingredients such as vitamins, minerals and these substances are meant for improving the dietary level intake in the human body3.

 

 

 

An example of dietary supplement includes carnitine which is used by strict vegetarians and low-weight infants4. Nutrients and food plays an important role in normal functioning of human body and they are involved in reducing the risk of variety of diseases5. Nutrients is defined as components of food which provides energy, building block for repair, and it is essential for the chemical processes regulation6. Nutrients are the main components in foods that are used by the organisms for their survival. Human nutrition involves macronutrients and micronutrients. Some of the nutrients include protein, vitamins, minerals7. The minerals are essential nutrients, needed to regulate both our body processes and to give the structure of our body8. In epidemiological studies and therapeutic trials, the symptoms are used to characterize the bowel habits for functional bowel disorders9. Dietary fiber is a healthful compound and has various beneficial effects. The increased consumption of dietary fiber has been recommended to treat constipation in children and adults10. The noodles have grown into increased worldwide utilization and it has become an internationally recognized food. The properties of instant noodles like the taste, nutrition, safety, longer shelf life, and price have made them familiar11. Conventional noodle is made from simple ingredients (wheat flour, water, and salt) can be an integrated meal since it contains carbohydrates, proteins, and a trace amount of saturated fatty acids. Complex flour is defined as a mixture of several flours obtained from roots and tubers, cereals, etc. with or without the wheat flour12. Wheat is the most popular food grain and contains all the essential amino acids except lysine and tryptophan, vitamins, and minerals required.

 

Palmyra palm: plant description and habitat:

Palmyra palm, a multipurpose tree with considerable advantage is a native of tropical Africa, it also grows extensively in the different parts of India, Sri Lanka, and Myanmar, and Bangladesh13. The Borassus flabellifer is a tall palm, with large, fan-shaped leaves that are quite different from the pinnate leaves of other palms. Borassus is from a Greek word describing the rough covering of the fruit and flabellifer means “fan-bearer”14. The trees have various medicinal uses and the fruits are sedative, laxative, and aphrodisiac in nature and useful in skin diseases, hyperdipsia, dyspepsia. The roots and juice of plants are used in inflammatory reactions15. Noodles are prepared using Palmyra tuber flour and wheat granulate.

 

Design of Experiment- Statistical Method:

The design of the experiment is defined as a systematic method to determine the relationship between factors affecting a process and the output of that process. This information is needed to manage process inputs to optimize output. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is a collection of statistical data for modeling and analysis of problems in which a response of interest is influenced by several variables16.

 

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Preparation of Palmyra tuber flour:

Fresh Palmyra tubers were cleaned, washed, and chopped. It is made to dry to remove moisture content and ground in the grinder to get a powdered consistency.

 

Noodle preparation:

Noodles were prepared according to a procedure developed in 1996 by Collado and Corke and with some modifications. The noodles were made in an automatic laboratory with a noodle maker17. Noodles were made using Wheat flour of 30% and Palmyra tuber flour of 70% respectively and it was placed in a kneader and water was added to raw materials. Pure salt was solubilized in water and sprayed uniformly to prevent any lumps of the raw materials. After kneading for fifteen minutes, the batter was rolled by a noodle-maker. The rolling process was carried out several times so the thickness of the mixture became moderately narrow. The dimensions of the noodle were 3mm in width, 1.5mm of thickness, and 200 mm in length18. “Fig.1 shows the noodle formation”.

 

  

a. Selection of palmyra fruit,       b. Slicing

 

 

c. Grinding                              d. Dough making

Fig.1 Formation of palmyra tuber noodles.

 

Cooking quality parameters:

Cooking time:

The cooking time was the time required for cooking the noodles with distilled water19. 5g of noodle sample was placed in the beaker containing 75ml of distilled water. The cooking of noodle was continued until the white-colored fractions in the noodles disappeared and time was recorded.

 

Cooking loss:

The cooking loss of the noodles was calculated by measuring the amount of solid noodle substance lost to the cooking water. 5g of noodle sample was placed in 100 ml of boiling water. The cooking water was collected and transferred to a pre-weighed glass plate and kept in a hot air oven at 100 degrees Celsius. The water was allowed to get evaporated. The dry residue was collected, weighed, and recorded20.

 

Cooking yield:

Weigh 10g of noodle sample and transferred into the beaker containing 150ml of boiling water. The noodles were cooked for 10 min with slight agitation. The cooked noodles were drained and weighed. The cooking yield21. was calculated by below equation (1),

 

Cooking yield (g) = Weight of noodles after cooking (g) – Weight before cooking (g)                        (1)    

 

Sensory analysis:

The sensory analysis exhibits the characteristics and quality parameters of the food was carried out constituting the organoleptic parameters of noodles22. The noodles produced were made to sensory analysis for 5 semi-trained panelists to determine the acceptancy of the sample. The noodles were evaluated on a 5-point hedonic scale where 1 is the lowest point and 5 is the highest point for that characteristic.

 

Nutritional analysis:

A nutritional analysis of the noodle was carried out at the Chennai Testing Lab. The overall content of proteins, carbohydrates, fat, dietary fiber, calcium, sodium of 100 g of noodle sampling was determined.

 

Shelf life and stability studies:

Stability testing of the products is essential for determining the shelf life of the product23. A microbial study was conducted by growth inhibition method on samples to examine the solidity and the safety of an end product concerning the foodborne pathogens and spoilage causing microorganisms24.

 

Moisture content:

A 100g of the fresh sample was taken in a crucible in triplet and oven-dried at 80 degrees Celsius till constant weight is achieved. Percent moisture content was determined by the following formula:

                  (2).

Where A = Weight of the sample initially, B = Final weight of the sample25.

 

pH analysis: The pH is measured by using pH meter which was standardized for pH 4 and pH 726.

 

Determination of Water Absorption Index (WAI) & Water Solubility Index (WSI): 1g of blended flour was kept in a pre-weighed centrifuge tube. 10ml of distilled water was added and stirred. It is centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 10 mins at room temperature. The residue was then weighed together with the centrifuge tube. The WAI values were expressed as a gram of water absorbed/gram of flour. WSI was determined by transferring the supernatant to the pre-weighed dish and it was placed in a hot air oven for the evaporation of water. Then the dry matter in the supernatant was weighed27. Equation (3) and (4) gives the formula to calculate WAI and WSI.

             Weight of residue (g)

WAI = --------------------------

             Sample of taken

(3)

  (4)

 

 

RESULTS:

The results for several experiments were carried out during the study are given below:

 

Cooking quality:

Cooking quality of noodles is the most evaluative characteristic for consumers and therefore it is of great importance in the processing industry. The noodles should have a relatively strong bite with a firm, smooth surface, good appearance, and good mouthfeel28. The factors that influence the cooked noodles are protein content, ash content, the thickness of noodles. The cooking time of Palmyra tuber noodles was 18 min whereas other noodles were 15 min. The cooking loss and cooking yield for Palmyra tuber noodles were 5% and 22.49g respectively.

 

Sensory evaluation:

The samples were exposed to a sensory analysis by a group of 5 persons under different age groups ranging from 5 to 45. The product was evaluated for taste, color, texture, aroma, appearance. It was found that all these 5 parameters were graded with 4 and 5 points.

 

Nutritional analysis:

From the nutritional analysis, the quantities of Energy, Carbohydrates, Total fat, Protein (Nx6.25), Total Sugar, Dietary fiber, Sodium, Calcium was evaluated in Table 1.


 

Table 1: Nutritional analysis

S.No

Parameters

METHOD

Units

Results

1

Energy (by Calculation)

FAO Method

(Kcal/100g)

107

2

Carbohydrate (by difference)

CTL/SOP/FOOD/262-2014

(g/100g)

22.4

3

Total Fats

AOAC 20thEdn.2016, 954.02

(g/100g)

0.53

4

Protein (NX6.25)

AOAC 20thEdn.2016, 986.25

(g/100g)

3.10

5

Total Sugars

AOAC 20thEdn.2016, 925.05

(g/100g)

1.50

6

Dietary Fiber

AOAC 20thEdn.2016, 985.29

(g/100g)

2.65

7

Sodium as Na

AOAC 20thEdn.2016, 969.23

(mg/100g)

34.6

a. FAO – The Food & Agriculture Organization; b. CTL – Customer Testing Laboratories; c. SOP – Standard Operating Procedures; d. AOAC - Association of an Official Agricultural Chemists.

 


 

 

Table 2: Comparative level

S. No.

Nutritions

Palmyra Tuber Noodle

Other Noodles

1

Carbohydrates (g/100g sample)

22.4

25

2

FIBER (g/100g sample)

2.65

1.25

3

FAT (g/100g sample)

0.53

2.1

4

CALORIES (kcal/100g sample)

107

138

 

The comparative study was conducted using palmyra tuber noodles and other noodles in Table 2. It was seen that the Palmyra tuber noodles contain high fiber content than other noodles. The fiber act as a dietary supplement for intestine related issues like constipation.

 

Shelf life and solidity studies:

Table 3 shows a slight rise in the microbial load which was observed in the 4-different treatment of samples during the storage period and it was within the permissible limit.

 

Table 3: Shelf life and solidity studies

Microbial Load (colony forming units/gm)

 

Treatments

0 Days

Bacteria - Y&M

30 Days

Bacteria- Y&M

60 Days

Bacteria- Y&M

90 Days

Bacteria- Y&M

Treatment a

-                            -        -

   -          -       -

   -          -       -

49     -                        49

Treatment b

   -               -         -

   -          -       -

   -          -       -

40     -                        40

Treatment c

   -               -         -

   -          -       -

   -          -      -

30     -                        30

Treatment d

   -               -        -

   -          -       -

   -          -      -

31    -                          31

 

Moisture level:

The initial moisture level of noodles around 29.67% and it decreases during months 1,2 and 3. The percentage change over time is 0.88% which is shown in Table 4.

 

Table 4: Moisture level

Noodle Sample

Moisture Content (%)

Percentage Change Over Time

Initial

Month - 1

Month - 2

Month - 3

29.67

29.65

29.87

29.93

0.88

 

Chemical analysis: pH analysis:

Results regarding the pH of noodle showed that it contained 4.29, 4.35, and 4.37. The mean value was recorded as 4.36. The pH value of woo-long noodles from domestic markets in Taipei, Taiwan ranges between 4.12 and 6.5829. The pH obtained from this study was 4.36 which lies within the above range.

 

Determination of Water Absorption Index (WAI) & Water Solubility Index (WSI):

The water absorption index of other noodles was found to be 5.58 g/g and Palmyra tuber noodles were found to be 6.81 g/g. The water solubility index of other noodles was 7.46% and Palmyra tuber noodles were 7.89%.

 

RSM- Model developed for energy prediction:

To determine and estimate the amount of energy obtained, empirical models have been developed by using a statistical software package design expert. Based on experimental data, the models were developed using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based CCD to determine the amount of energy. The final empirical equation for energy in terms of carbohydrate and sodium are shown in equation (5); in terms of carbohydrate and total fats are shown in equation (6); in terms of carbohydrate and dietary fiber are shown in equation (7); in terms of carbohydrate and protein is shown in equation (8).

 

Energy = +9.53007 + 1.03751 × Carbohydrate + 1169.06785 × sodium – 29.67589 ×

Carbohydrate × sodium + 0.172891 × carbohydrate2 – 12738048107 × sodium                                    (5).

Energy = +4.94060 + 2.13868 × Carbohydrate + 77.75908 × total fats – 3.36927×

Carbohydrate × total fats + 0.118583 × carbohydratez – 12.45995 × total fats                                         (6).

Energy = +7.72829 + 1.66237 × Carbohydrate + 12.56843 × dietary fiber – 0.387466 ×

Carbohydrate × dietary fiber + 0.121572 × carbohydratez – 0.569598 × dietary fiber                           (7).

Energy = +4.22461 + 1.94394 × Carbohydrate + 10.46987 × protein – 0.3489631 ×

Carbohydrate × protein + 0.116889 × carbohydratez – 0.796046 × protein                                              (8).

The response surface graph for the combined effect of carbohydrate and sodium on energy obtained from noodle was shown in Fig 2.

 

Fig 2. Combined effects of carbohydrate, sodium on the amount of energy obtained from noodles.


 

 

 

Fig 3. Combined effects of carbohydrate, total fats on the amount of energy obtained from noodles.

Fig 4. Combined effects of carbohydrate, dietary fiber on the amount of energy obtained from noodles.

 

Fig 5. Combined effects of carbohydrate, a protein on the amount of energy obtained from noodles.

 

 

 


The response surface graph for the combined effect of carbohydrate and total fats on energy obtained from noodle was shown in Fig 3.

 

The response surface graph for the combined effect of carbohydrate and dietary fiber on energy obtained from noodle was shown in Fig 4.

 

 

The response surface graph for the combined effect of carbohydrate and protein on energy obtained from noodle was shown in Fig 5.

 

Statistical analysis:

Based on experimental data, the ANOVA (Analysis of variance) has been used to calculate the below statistical parameters was shown in Table 5.


 

 

Table 5: ANOVA table for the energy obtained from the noodle in terms of carbohydrate and sodium, carbohydrate and total fats, carbohydrate and dietary fiber, carbohydrate and protein.

ANOVA for effects of carbohydrate and sodium on the amount of energy.

Source

Sum of Squares

df

Mean square

F- value

p-value

 

Model

23492.35

5

4698.47

24.07

0.0003

significant

A-Carbohydrate

19400.61

1

19400.61

99.37

<0.0001

 

B-Sodium

375.37

1

375.37

1.92

0.2081

 

AB

132.25

1

132.25

0.6774

0.4376

 

A2

3271.98

1

3271.98

16.76

0.0046

 

B2

101.11

1

101.11

0.5179

0.4951

 

Residual

1366.65

7

195.24

 

 

 

Lack of fit

1366.65

3

455.55

 

 

 

Pure Error

0.0000

4

0.0000

 

 

 

Cor Total

24859.00

12

 

 

 

 

ANOVA for effects of carbohydrate and total fats on the amount of energy.

Source

Sum of Squares

df

Mean square

F- value

p-value

 

Model

17902.57

5

3580.51

52.11

<0.0001

significant

A-Carbohydrate

15279.79

1

15279.79

222.36

<0.0001

 

B-total fats

627.45

1

627.45

9.13

0.0193

 

AB

400.00

1

400.00

5.82

0.0466

 

A2

1539.24

1

1539.24

22.40

0.0021

 

B2

5.33

1

5.33

0.0775

0.7887

 

Residual

481.01

7

68.72

 

 

 

Lack of fit

481.01

3

160.34

 

 

 

Pure Error

0.0000

4

0.0000

 

 

 

Cor Total

18383.58

12

 

 

 

 

ANOVA for effects of carbohydrate and dietary fiber on the amount of energy.

Source

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F- value

p-value

 

Model

18135.57

5

3627.11

27.06

0.0002

significant

A-Carbohydrate

15046.64

1

15046.64

112.24

<0.0001

 

B-Dietary fiber

1331.94

1

1331.94

9.94

0.0161

 

AB

132.25

1

132.25

0.9865

0.3537

 

A2

1617.83

1

1617.83

12.07

0.0104

 

B2

6.96

1

6.96

0.0519

0.8263

 

Residual

938.43

7

134.06

 

 

 

Lack of fit

938.43

3

312.81

 

 

 

Pure Error

0.0000

4

0.0000

 

 

 

Cor Total

19074.00

12

 

 

 

 

ANOVA for effects of carbohydrate and protein on the amount of energy.

Source

Sum of Squares

df

Mean Square

F- value

p-value

 

Model

17368.50

5

3473.70

111.69

<0.0001

significant

A-Carbohydrate

14516.09

1

14516.09

466.75

<0.0001

 

B-Protein

1067.83

1

1067.83

34.34

0.0006

 

AB

289.00

1

289.00

9.29

0.0186

 

A2

1495.58

1

1495.58

48.09

0.0002

 

B2

25.44

1

25.44

0.8182

0.3958

 

Residual

217.70

7

31.10

 

 

 

Lack of fit

217.70

3

72.57

 

 

 

Pure Error

0.0000

4

0.0000

 

 

 

Cor Total

17586.20

12

 

 

 

 

 


From Table 5, in case of effects of carbohydrate and sodium, the Model F-value of 24.07 implies the model is significant. There is only a 0.03% chance that an F-value this large could occur due to noise. P-values less than 0.0500 indicate model terms are significant. In case of effects of carbohydrate and total fats, the Model F- value of 52.11 implies the model is significant. There is only a 0.01% chance that an F-value this large could occur due to noise. P-values less than 0.0500 indicate model terms are significant. In this case, A, B, AB, A2 are significant model terms. In case of effects of carbohydrate and dietary fiber, the Model F-value of 27.06 implies the model is significant. There is only a 0.02% chance that an F-value this large could occur due to noise. P-values less than 0.0500 indicate model terms are significant. In this case, A, B, A2 are significant model terms. In case of effects of carbohydrate and protein, the Model F- value of 111.69 implies the model is significant. There is only a 0.01% chance that an F-value this large could occur due to noise. P-values less than 0.0500 indicate model terms are significant. In this case, A, B, AB, A2 are significant model terms.

 

DISCUSSION:

Palmyra noodle contains a high amount of fiber content (2.65g/100g) than another noodle (1.25g/100g). Low fiber content leads to abnormalities in bowel movement, higher cholesterol levels, hyperglycemia, diabetes, and positive calorie distribution and leading to weight gain. So, these deficiencies can be reduced by consuming high fiber content products like Palmyra tuber noodles. Palmyra tuber noodles also contain less amount of fat and calories.

 

CONCLUSION:

Results explored that good quality fiber-rich noodles could be prepared from Palmyra tuber and storage with minimum damages among the other action towards both physiochemically and organoleptically even after 90 days of storage interval. The Palmyra tuber noodles were approved by the respondents as they indicated that the sensory analysis (that is, the color, relish, smell, flavor, texture, after-taste, and customer acceptability) of Palmyra tuber and Palmyra tuber noodles were generally very good. It is concluded that the storage and treatment had a significant effect on the quality and stability of noodles to enhance and facilitate bowel movement. Design expert software was used to optimize the parameters and the empirical equations have been developed for determining the amount of energy obtained from Palmyra tuber noodle.

 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT:

The authors thank the Institute authorities for providing the necessary proficiency to carry out the work.

 

REFERENCES:

1.      Muaed Jamal Alomar, Samir Bloukh, Duaa Akram Eid. Dietary supplement use, adverse events and related health effects among population of UAE: A cross-sectional study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(11): 5627-5632.

2.      G. Sreeramya, C.N. Nalini, N. Ramalakshmi, Kondaviti Sahini, S. Amudha Lakshmi. A new era in medicine- Neutraceuticals. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2018; 11(8): 3572-3576.

3.      R. Subaranjani, Dr. Raju Kamaraj. Food facility registration US- FDA. Research Journal of Pharmacy & Technology. 2018; 11(10): 4744-4748.

4.      Akhilesh Gupta, Swati Rawat, Prabhanshu Gupta. Clinical research and therapeutic importance of dietary supplement L-Carnitine: Review. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018; 8(1): 47-58.

5.      Sarika S. Lokhande. Role of nutraceuticals in various diseases: A comprehensive review. Asian Journal of pharmaceutical Research. 2018; 8(4): 236-240.

6.      Akshay R Rao, Anup Naha, Sivakumar Kannan, Suhas B.S, Shubham Asagoankar. A review on dietary supplements: Delivery systems, applications and regulations. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(8): 4002-4006.

7.      Amina Mehrin Bano, Vishnupriya. V, Gayathri. R. Nutritional awareness among adolescents. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2016; 9(7): 898-902.

8.      Kumar Amit, Krishna Shri, and Singh Arjun. Elemental analysis of ash and physico-chemical evaluation of abutilon indicum Linn. – An important medicinal plant. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2011; 4(8): 1245-1248.

9.      Adil E. Bharucha, Barbara M. Seide, Alan R. Zinsmeister, L. Joseph Melton. Insights into normal and disordered bowel habits from bowel diaries. The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 2008; 103(3): 692-698.

10.   Jing Yang, Hai-Peng Wang, Li Zhou, and Chun- Fang Xu. Effect of dietary fiber on constipation: A meta-analysis. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2012; 18(48):7378-7383.

11.   K.N. Pakhare, A.C. Dagadkhair, I.S. Udachan, and R.A. Andale. Studies on Preparation and Quality of Nutritious Noodles by Incorporation of Defatted Rice Bran and Soy Flour. Journal of Food Processing & Technology. 2016; 7(10): 629.

12.   Tijani, O. Akeem, Oke, K. Emmanuel, Bakare, A. Henry and Tayo, R. Tawakalitu. Quality Evaluation of Instant Noodles Produced from Composite Breadfruit Flour. Researcher. 2017; 9(1): 21 – 26.

13.   A.K. Chaurasiya, I. Chakraborty, J. Saha. Value addition of Palmyra palm and studies on the storage life. Journal of Food Science & Technology. 2014; 51(4): 768 – 773.

14.   K.S. Saravanya and Dr. S. Kavitha. A Study on Properties of Palmyra Sprout. International Journal of Current Research. 2017; 9(7): 54299 – 54301.

15.   Chayanika Sahni, Najam A. Shakil, Vidyanath Jha, Rajinder Kumar Gupta. Screening of Nutritional, Phytochemical, Antioxidant and Antibacterial activity of the roots of Borassus flabellifer (Asian Palmyra Palm). Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2014; 3(4): 58 – 68.

16.   K. Sathya, K. Nagarajan, S. Geethpriya, K. Abirami. Extraction of lemon oil from lemon peel using solvent extraction method. Research journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences. 2018; 9(2): 913-919.

17.   P.D. Shere, A.N. Devkatte, and V.N. Pawar. Studies on Production of Functional Noodles with Incorporation of Spinach Puree. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences. 2018; 7(6): 1618 -1628.

18.   Jinsoo Kang, Jungu Lee and Youngseung Lee. Physicochemical and Textural Properties of Noodles Prepared from Different Potato Varieties. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science. 2017; 22(3): 246 – 250.

19.   N. Singh, G.S. Chauhan, G.S. Bains. Effect of soy flour supplementation on the quality of cooked noodles. International Journal of Food Science and Technology. 1989; 24(1): 111- 114.

20.   T.V. Hymavathi, V. Thejasri, and T.P. Pradeepa Roberts. Enhancing cooking, sensory and nutritious quality of finger millet noodles through incorporation of hydrocolloids. International Journal of Chemical Studies. 2019; 7(2): 877-881.

21.   T.O. Akanbi, S. Nazamid, A.A. Adebowale, A.Farooq, and A.O. Olaoye. Breadfruit starch-wheat flour noodles: preparation, proximate compositions, and culinary properties. International Food Research Journal. 2011; 18(4): 1283-1287.

22.   A. Arun, Mark Keith Faraday. A perceptive study to endorse the nutritional aspects of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L) and formulated recipes. Research Journal of Pharmacy & Technology. 2020; 13(2): 911-914.

23.   Rakesh K Sindhu, Parneet Kaur. Regulatory requirements and stability testing of ethnomedicinal plant products. Research Journal of Pharmacy & Technology. 2020; 13(3): 1538-1542.

24.   Trivedi Disha, Wadia Ashok, Nina Dias, and Kataria Roonal. Production of nutritious jam by using an underutilized fruit Avverhoa Carambola (star fruit). International Journal of Advanced Research. 2017; 5(1): 2852 – 2856.

25.   M. Moshiur Rahman. Preparation of Strawberry Jam and Estimation of its Nutritive Value during Storage. Journal of Postharvest technology. 2018; 6(1): 41 – 56.

26.   Tariq Kamal, Sana Khan, Muhammad Riaz, and Mehnaz Safdar. Functional Properties and Preparation of Diet Apricot Jam. Journal of Food Processing and Technology. 2015; 6(8): 475.

27.   Suresh Bhise, A. Kaur, and Poonam Aggarwal. Development of protein-enriched noodles using texturized defatted meal from sunflower, flaxseed, and soybean. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 2014; 52(9): 5882-5889.

28.   G. Hou. Oriental noodles. Advances in Food and Nutrition Research. 2001; 43: 141-193.

29.   Hsueh-Liang Lin, Der-Sheng Chen, Chin-Hung Tsai, and Shie-Jea Lin. Effects of acidification on the extension of shelf life of Japanese wet-type noodles. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 2016; 10(45): 1918-1925.

 

 

 

Received on 20.10.2020            Modified on 24.03.2021

Accepted on 04.07.2021           © RJPT All right reserved

Research J. Pharm.and Tech 2022; 15(2):807-813.

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00134