Anamika Gautam, Harmeet Kaur, Arvinder Kaur, Pankaj Kumar Prashar, Ankita Sood, Sachin Kumar Singh, Monica Gulati, Narendra Kumar Pandey, Bimlesh Kumar
bimlesh1Pharm@gmail.com , email@example.com.
Anamika Gautam, Harmeet Kaur, Arvinder Kaur, Pankaj Kumar Prashar, Ankita Sood, Sachin Kumar Singh, Monica Gulati, Narendra Kumar Pandey, Bimlesh Kumar*
School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab, India.
Volume - 13,
Issue - 11,
Year - 2020
Tinospora Cordifolia (TC) (family: Menispermaceae) is a medicinal plant with multi health benefits. This plant is reported to possess anti-diabetic, anti-periodic, anti-spasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, anti-oxidant, anti-allergic, anti-stress, anti-leprotic, anti-malarial, hepato-protective, immunomodulatory and anti-neoplastic effects. Each part of this plant and its various species are effective in the treatment of various disorders. Alpha-D-glucan of this plant causes activation of immune system through activation of macrophage that occur by TLR6 signaling, NF kappa B translocation and cytokine production. Its extract is antagonizing the effect of Histamine, 5-HT, bradykinin, PGE1 in smooth muscle of rat. Scientific reports stablished that, LD50 value was higher than 1 g/kg in case of oral administration in experimental animal apart from that no abnormalities were detected in liver and renal function of rats received 100mg/kg for 12 weeks. 3g/kg of its administration did not show any adverse effects or animal death in Wistar albino rats undergone acute toxicity studies. TC reported safe in a phase I study. Clinically it was reported that its aqueous extract decreases the toxic effects of alcohol and help to modulate testosterone and cholesterol biosynthesis. Hence present review focus on preclinical and clinical importance of TC and its bioactive compounds.
Cite this article:
Anamika Gautam, Harmeet Kaur, Arvinder Kaur, Pankaj Kumar Prashar, Ankita Sood, Sachin Kumar Singh, Monica Gulati, Narendra Kumar Pandey, Bimlesh Kumar. Tinospora cordifolia: A Successful Story from Botanical background to Pharmaceutical Product. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(11):5620-5630. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00980.4
Anamika Gautam, Harmeet Kaur, Arvinder Kaur, Pankaj Kumar Prashar, Ankita Sood, Sachin Kumar Singh, Monica Gulati, Narendra Kumar Pandey, Bimlesh Kumar. Tinospora cordifolia: A Successful Story from Botanical background to Pharmaceutical Product. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(11):5620-5630. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00980.4 Available on: https://www.rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2020-13-11-95
1. Kulkarni, R., K. Girish, and A. Kumar, Nootropic herbs (Medhya Rasayana) in Ayurveda: an update. Pharmacognosy reviews, 2012. 6(12): p. 147.
2. Shirolkar, A., et al., Guduchi Sawras (Tinospora cordifolia): An Ayurvedic drug treatment modulates the impaired lipid metabolism in alcoholics through dopaminergic neurotransmission and anti-oxidant defense system. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 2016. 83: p. 1265-1277.
3. Sinha, K., et al., Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi), a reservoir plant for therapeutic applications: A Review. 2004.
4. Sankhala, L., R. Saini, and B. Saini, A review on chemical and biological properties of Tinospora cordifolia. Int. J. med. arom. plants, 2012. 2(2): p. 340-344.
5. Priya, L.B., et al., Tinospora cordifolia extract attenuates cadmium-induced biochemical and histological alterations in the heart of male Wistar rats. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy, 2017. 87: p. 280-287.
6. Kosaraju, J., et al., Neuroprotective effect of Tinospora cordifolia ethanol extract on 6-hydroxy dopamine induced Parkinsonism. Indian journal of pharmacology, 2014. 46(2): p. 176.
7. Patgiri, B., et al., Anti-inflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana (aqueous extract of Tinospora Cordifolia Miers.). Ayu, 2014. 35(1): p. 108.
8. Singh, S., et al., Chemistry and medicinal properties of Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi). Indian journal of pharmacology, 2003. 35(2): p. 83-91.
9. Mishra, R. and G. Kaur, Aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia as a potential candidate for differentiation based therapy of glioblastomas. PLoS One, 2013. 8(10): p. e78764.
10. Deole, Y.S., et al., Evaluation of anti-depressant and anxiolytic activity of Rasayana Ghana Tablet (A compound Ayurvedic formulation) in albino mice. Ayu, 2011. 32(3): p. 375.
11. CORDIFOLIA, T., TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA: A PHYTOPHARMACOLOGICAL REVIEW.
12. Mittal, J., M.M. Sharma, and A. Batra, Tinospora cordifolia: a multipurpose medicinal plant-A. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2014. 2(2).
13. Upadhyay, A.K., et al., Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms.(Guduchi)–validation of the Ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies. International journal of Ayurveda research, 2010. 1(2): p. 112.
14. Bairy, K., et al., Protective effect of Tinospora cordifolia on experimentally induced gastric ulcers in rats. Journal of Natural Remedies, 2002. 2(1): p. 49-53.
15. Yu, D.-R., et al., Neuroprotective activity of two active chemical constituents from Tinospora hainanensis. Asian Pacific journal of tropical medicine, 2017. 10(2): p. 114-120.
16. Bishayi, B., et al., Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory properties of Tinospora cordifolia in CCl4 intoxicated mature albino rats. The Journal of toxicological sciences, 2002. 27(3): p. 139-146.
17. Kalabharathi, H., et al., Anti depressant activity of fresh leaves of Tinospora cordifolia miers (Amruthaballi) in albino mice. Int J Pharm Sci Res, 2014. 5: p. 5420.
18. Hossain, M.M., et al., Evaluation of analgesic and neuropharmacological properties of the aerial part of Tinospora cordifolia Miers. in mice. Stamford Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2009. 2(2): p. 31-37.
19. Antony, S., et al., Amelioration of CNS Toxicities of L-Dopa in Experimental Models of Parkinson’s disease by Concurrent Treatment with Tinospora cordifolia. Hygeia: Journal for Drugs and Medicines, 2010. 2(1): p. 28-37.
20. Arora, N., K. Shah, and S. Pandey-Rai, Inhibition of imiquimod-induced psoriasis-like dermatitis in mice by herbal extracts from some Indian medicinal plants. Protoplasma, 2016. 253(2): p. 503-515.
21. Stanely, P., M. Prince, and V.P. Menon, Hypoglycaemic and other related actions of Tinospora cordifolia roots in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2000. 70(1): p. 9-15.
22. Castillo, A.L., et al., Efficacy and safety of Tinospora cordifolia lotion in Sarcoptes scabiei var hominis-infected pediatric patients: A single blind, randomized controlled trial. Journal of pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics, 2013. 4(1): p. 39.
23. Steels, E., et al., A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating safety and efficacy of an ayurvedic botanical formulation in reducing menopausal symptoms in otherwise healthy women. Journal of Herbal Medicine, 2018.
24. Karkal, Y. and L.K. Bairy, Safety of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) in healthy volunteers: a double blind randomised placebo controlled study. Iranian J Pharmacol Therap, 2007. 6: p. 59-61.
25. Kalikar, M., et al., Immunomodulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract in human immuno-deficiency virus positive patients. Indian journal of pharmacology, 2008. 40(3): p. 107.
26. Agarwal, A., et al., Effect of Tinospora cardifolia on learning and memory in normal and memory deficit rats. Indian journal of pharmacology, 2002. 34(5): p. 339-349.
27. Philip, S., G. Tom, and A.V. Vasumathi, Evaluation of the anti‐inflammatory activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers chloroform extract–a preclinical study. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 2018.
28. Grover, J., et al., Traditional Indian anti-diabetic plants attenuate progression of renal damage in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2001. 76(3): p. 233-238.
29. Nadig, P.D., et al., Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on experimental diabetic neuropathy. Indian journal of pharmacology, 2012. 44(5): p. 580.
30. Sannegowda, K., S. Venkatesha, and K. Moudgil, Tinospora cordifolia inhibits autoimmune arthritis by regulating key immune mediators of inflammation and bone damage. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology, 2015. 28(4): p. 521-531.
31. Sengupta, M., G.D. Sharma, and B. Chakraborty, Effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia on functions of peritoneal macrophages isolated from CCl 4 intoxicated male albino mice. BMC complementary and alternative medicine, 2011. 11(1): p. 102.
32. Venkateswararao, C., K. Venkataramana, and V. Rajesham, SCREENING OF ANTI ULCER ACTIVITY OF POLYHERBAL METANOLIC EXTRACTION IN RATS. Advances in Pharmacology and Toxicology, 2014. 15(1): p. 49.
33. Chakraborty, B. and M. Sengupta, Supporting the immune system through functional modulation of carbon tetrachloride intoxicated splenic macrophages by administering Tinospora cordifolia. Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 2012. 2(7): p. 117.
34. Sarma, D., et al., Antistress activity of Tinospora cordifolia and Centella asiatica extracts. Phytotherapy Research, 1996. 10(2): p. 181-183.
35. Dhingra, D. and P. Goyal, Evidences for the involvement of monoaminergic and GABAergic systems in antidepressant-like activity of Tinospora cordifolia in mice. Indian journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 2008. 70(6): p. 761.
36. Reddy, N. and R. Reddy, Tinospora cordifolia chemical constituents and medicinal properties: a review. Sch Acad J Pharm, 2015. 4(8): p. 364-369.
37. Prince, P.S.M. and V.P. Menon, Antioxidant activity of Tinospora cordifolia roots in experimental diabetes. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 1999. 65(3): p. 277-281.
38. Rao, S., et al., Evaluation of antiulcer activity of Tinospora sinensis leaves. Singapore Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 2014. 1(1): p. 8-11.
39. NG, C., T. DEB, and S.M. BHARGAVI, EVALUATION OF ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF TINOSPORA CORDIFOLIA IN ALBINO RATS.
40. Stanely Mainzen Prince, P. and V.P. Menon, Antioxidant action of Tinospora cordifolia root extract in alloxan diabetic rats. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 2001. 15(3): p. 213-218.
41. Kavitha, B., et al., Phytochemical analysis and hepatoprotective properties of Tinospora cordifolia against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. Journal of basic and clinical pharmacy, 2011. 2(3): p. 139.
42. Hipol, R.L.B., M. Cariaga, and R.M. Hipol, Anti-inflammatory activities of the aqueous extract of the stem of Tinospora crispa (Family Menispermaceae). Journal of Nature Studies, 2012. 11(1and2): p. 88-95.
43. Gupta, M., D. Banerjee, and A. Mukherjee, Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects of methanol extract of traditional herbal medicine using rodents. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytotherapy, 2013. 5(6): p. 106-113.
44. Jayaprakash, R., et al., Antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia on N-nitrosodiethylamine (diethylnitrosamine) induced liver cancer in male Wister albino rats. Journal of pharmacy and bioallied sciences, 2015. 7(Suppl 1): p. S40.
45. Kapur, P., et al., Evaluation of the antiosteoporotic potential of Tinospora cordifolia in female rats. Maturitas, 2008. 59(4): p. 329-338.
46. Kadir, F.A., et al., Effect of Tinospora crispa on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats. Indian journal of pharmacology, 2011. 43(1): p. 64.
47. Antonisamy, P., et al., Gastroprotective effect of epoxy clerodane diterpene isolated from Tinospora cordifolia Miers (Guduchi) on indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Phytomedicine, 2014. 21(7): p. 966-969.
48. Uppuluri, S., et al., Nephroprotector activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia roots on cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Drug invention today, 2013. 5(4): p. 281-287.
49. Ahmad, W., et al., Immunostimulatory effects of the standardized extract of Tinospora crispa on innate immune responses in Wistar Kyoto rats. Drug design, development and therapy, 2015. 9: p. 2961.
50. Khanam, S., et al., Protective role of Tinospora cordifolia against cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2011. 3(11): p. 268-s270.
51. Jain, V.K. and A. Shete, Antipsychotic activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Tinospora Cordifolia in amphetamine challenged mice model. Journal of advanced pharmaceutical technology and research, 2010. 1(1): p. 30.
52. Rao, P.R., et al., Cardioprotective activity of alcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifolia in ischemia-reperfusion induced myocardial infarction in rats. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 2005. 28(12): p. 2319-2322.
53. Malve, H.O., et al., Effect of combination of Phyllanthus emblica, Tinospora cordifolia, and Ocimum sanctum on spatial learning and memory in rats. Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine, 2014. 5(4): p. 209.
54. Kapur, P., et al., Beneficial effects of β-Ecdysone on the joint, epiphyseal cartilage tissue and trabecular bone in ovariectomized rats. Phytomedicine, 2010. 17(5): p. 350-355.
55. Agrawal, S.S., et al., Prevention and management of diabetic retinopathy in STZ diabetic rats by Tinospora cordifolia and its molecular mechanisms. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 2012. 50(9): p. 3126-3132.
56. Rajalakshmi, M. and R. Anita, β-cell regenerative efficacy of a polysaccharide isolated from methanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia stem on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. Chemico-biological interactions, 2016. 243: p. 45-53.
57. Panchabhai, T., et al., Protective effect of Tinospora cordifolia, Phyllanthus emblica and their combination against antitubercular drugs induced hepatic damage: an experimental study. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 2008. 22(5): p. 646-650.
58. Reddy, S.S., et al., Preventive effect of Tinospora cordifolia against high-fructose diet-induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress in male Wistar rats. Food and chemical toxicology, 2009. 47(9): p. 2224-2229.
59. Singh, R., et al., Tinospora cordifolia induces enzymes of carcinogen/drug metabolism and antioxidant system, and inhibits lipid peroxidation in mice. Phytomedicine, 2006. 13(1-2): p. 74-84.
60. Mainzen Prince, P.S., M. Padmanabhan, and V.P. Menon, Restoration of antioxidant defence by ethanolic Tinospora cordifolia root extract in alloxan‐induced diabetic liver and kidney. Phytotherapy Research: An International Journal Devoted to Pharmacological and Toxicological Evaluation of Natural Product Derivatives, 2004. 18(9): p. 785-787.
61. Sangeetha, M.K., et al., Tinospora cordifolia attenuates oxidative stress and distorted carbohydrate metabolism in experimentally induced type 2 diabetes in rats. Journal of natural medicines, 2011. 65(3-4): p. 544.
62. Kumar, V., P.K. Modi, and K. Saxena, Exploration of hepatoprotective activity of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia-an experimental study. studies, 2013. 1: p. 2.
63. Adhvaryu, M.R., N. Reddy, and M.H. Parabia, Effects of four Indian medicinal herbs on Isoniazid-, Rifampicin-and Pyrazinamide-induced hepatic injury and immunosuppression in guinea pigs. World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG, 2007. 13(23): p. 3199.
64. Arde, V., Protective Effect of Tinospora cordifolia Against Gentamicin Induced Nephrotoxicity In Rats. 2012, MAFSU, Nagpur.
65. Sivakumar, V., Investigation of Anti-Hyperglycemic Activity of Micropropagated Tinospora Cordifolia in Alloxan Induced Experimental Diabetes. 2017.
66. Nageswari, G., A.H. Reddy, and B. Venkatappa, Evaluation of immunomodulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia leaf and stem on zidovudine induced immunotoxicity. Evaluation, 2018. 5(3): p. 1-5.
67. Padma, V.V., et al., Modulatory effect of Tinospora cordifolia extract on Cd-induced oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Integrative medicine research, 2016. 5(1): p. 48-55.
68. Meravanige, G. and M. Kamdod, Effect of Topical Tinospora Cordifolia on Healing of Burn Wounds in Wistar Rats. Int J Pharm Bio Sci, 2012. 3(3): p. 351-358.
69. Bairy, K.L., et al., Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia on learning and memory in healthy volunteers: A double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled study. Iranian Journal of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2004. 3(2): p. 57-0.
70. Lekurwale, P., K. Pandey, and P. Yadaiah, Management of Amavata with ‘Amrita Ghrita’: A clinical study. Ayu, 2010. 31(4): p. 430.
71. Salve, B.A., et al., Effect of Tinospora cordifolia on physical and cardiovascular performance induced by physical stress in healthy human volunteers. Ayu, 2015. 36(3): p. 265.
72. Ramachandran, A.P., et al., A comparative study of Kaishora Guggulu and Amrita Guggulu in the management of Utthana Vatarakta. Ayu, 2010. 31(4): p. 410.
73. Kumari, S., A. Mittal, and R. Dabur, Moderate alcohol consumption in chronic form enhances the synthesis of cholesterol and C-21 steroid hormones, while treatment with Tinospora cordifolia modulate these events in men. Steroids, 2016. 114: p. 68-77.
74. Thomas, A., E. Rajesh, and D.S. Kumar, The significance of Tinospora crispa in treatment of diabetes mellitus. Phytotherapy research, 2016. 30(3): p. 357-366.
75. Kumar, V., et al., A clinical trial to assess the antidiabetic, antidyslipidemic and antioxidant activities of Tinospora cordifolia in management of type-2 diabetes mellitus. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, 2016. 7(2): p. 757.
76. Badar, V., et al., Efficacy of Tinospora cordifolia in allergic rhinitis. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 2005. 96(3): p. 445-449.
77. Dhama, K., et al., Medicinal and beneficial health applications of Tinospora cordifolia (Guduchi): A miraculous herb countering various diseases/disorders and its immunomodulatory effects. Recent patents on endocrine, metabolic and immune drug discovery, 2016. 10(2): p. 96-111.
78. Solanki, R., Composition of eleven herbals for treating cancer. 2004, Google Patents.
79. Acharya, V.N., T. Mukhopadhyay, and S.A. Piramal, Herbal extract for renal disorders. 2011, Google Patents.
80. Rohatgi, S., Ayurvedic composition for the prophylaxis and treatment of AIDS, flu, TB and other immuno-deficiencies and the process for preparing the same. 1996, Google Patents.
81. Nair, P.R., S.J. Melnick, and C. Ramachandran, Materials and methods for immune system stimulation. 2008, Google Patents.
82. Palpu, P., et al., Anti-allergic herbal formulation. 2008, Google Patents.
83. Palpu, P., et al., Herbal nutritious chocolate formulation and process for preparation thereof. 2007, Google Patents.
84. Palpu, P., et al., Herbal soft drink. 2009, Google Patents.
85. Watson, B.F. and L.O. Smith, Liver function improvement formulation. 2004, Google Patents.
86. Singh, A.K., et al., Composition of herbal biscuits for lactating mothers acting as dietary supplement and process for preparation thereof. 2003, Google Patents.
87. Solanki, R., Herbal formulation. 2003, Google Patents.
88. Hingorani, L. and V. Thawani, Composition containing tinospora cordifolia and process for obtaining same. 2006, Google Patents.
89. Chavali, S.R. and R.A. Forse, Formulation for alleviating symptoms associated with arthritis. 1997, Google Patents.
90. Dhaliwal, K.S., Method and composition for treatment of diabetes. 1999, Google Patents.
91. Sharma, U., Phytochemical Investigations of Tinospora cordifolia Asparagus racemosus and Synthesis of Phthalimide Derivatives for Immunomodulatory Active Molecules. 2012.
92. Managoli, N.B., Herbal composition for treatment of immunocompromised conditions. 2008, Google Patents.
93. Rosen, B.D., Alternative ACT with natural botanical active GRAS ingredients for treatment and prevention of the Zika virus. 2017, Google Patents.
94. Montagnier, L., System and method for the detection and treatment of infection by a microbial agent associated with HIV infection. 2017, Google Patents.
95. Lockwood, C.M., Therapeutic compositions and methods for addressing physiological stresses and aging. 2017, Google Patents.
96. Collins, D.F., D.H. Maes, and N. Muizzuddin, Methods and compositions for treating skin. 2017, Google Patents.
97. Patil, P.N., Herbal calf starter compositions. 2014, Google Patents.
98. Pushpangadan, P., et al., Synergistic antipyretic formulation. 2010, Google Patents.
99. Udell, R.G. and S.P. Hari, Corosolic acid formulation and its application for weight-loss management and blood sugar balance. 2004, Google Patents.
100. Desai, A.M., Herbomineral formulation for treating sickle cell disease. 2014, Google Patents.
101. Dhaliwal, K.S., Method and composition for treatment of premenstrual syndrome in women. 2003, Google Patents.
102. Palpu, P., et al., Herbal formulation as memory enhancer in alzheimer condition. 2008, Google Patents.
103. Patil, P.N., Herbal milk replacer compositions for calf. 2014, Google Patents.
104. Vaidya, S.P., Formulation for prevention and treatment of bacterial infections and preparation thereof. 2013, Google Patents.
105. Mitra, S.K., E. Saxena, and M.N. Dixit, Natural immunostimulant compositions, methods for obtaining the same and pharmaceutical formulations thereof. 2009, Google Patents.
106. Chaudhary, M., Detoxifier herbal formulation. 2016, Google Patents.
107. Mitra, S.K., E. Saxena, and M.N. Dixit, Natural immunostimulant compositions, methods for obtaining the same and pharmaceutical formulations thereof. 2011, Google Patents.
108. Bandyopadhyay, P., et al., Personal care composition. 2016, Google Patents.
109. Gupta, S.K., Antiaging cosmetic delivery systems. 2008, Google Patents.
110. Udell, R.G. and S.P. Hari, Corosolic acid formulation and its application for weight-loss management and blood sugar balance. 2011, Google Patents.