Author(s): Geetha Balasubramaniam, Mahendran Sekar, Maithili Varadarajan, Shrishailappa Badami


DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.01018.5   

Address: Geetha Balasubramaniam1,2, Mahendran Sekar3, Maithili Varadarajan4, Shrishailappa Badami5
1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Swamy Vivekanandha College of Pharmacy, Elayampalayam, Tiruchengode – 637205, Tamilnadu, India.
2Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, JSS College of Pharmacy, JSS Academy of Higher Education and Research, Rocklands, Udhagamandalam – 643001, Nilgiris, Tamilnadu, India.
3Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Royal College of Medicine Perak, Ipoh – 30450, Perak, Malaysia.
4Department of Pharmacognosy, Padmavathi College of Pharmacy, Dharamapuri – 635205, Tamilnadu, India.
5Chaitanya Vikas Yoga and Nature Cure Centre, Rajatgiri, Dharwad – 580004, Karnataka, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 13,      Issue - 12,     Year - 2020

Background: Strobilanthes species is well known for their diverse biological activities including analgesic and anti-inflammatory. Strobilanthes kunthianus Nees T Anders (Neela kurinji) is a seasonal plant and grows at the Nilgris of India once in twelve years. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in-vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of S. kunthianus using experimental animal models. Methods: A number of methods including paw edema induced by carrageenan, paw edema induced by formalin, and granuloma induced by cotton pellets were used to evaluate anti-inflammatory activity. Additionally, the hot plate and tail immersion test were used to evaluate the analgesic activity of crude methanol extracts of S. kunthianus flower, root, stem and leaves in different dose levels. Results: The treatment with crude methanol flower extract showed the maximum activity among the extracts tested in all the methods. However, Standard ibuprofen showed potent activity over the extracts. Based on these findings, crude methanol flower extract of S. kunthianus was selected for sub-chronic anti-inflammatory studies using cotton pellet method. The extract indicating its potency was found to be healthy. Conclusion: It could be seen that from this study that S. kunthianus may contain anti-inflammatory and analgesic agents which support its use in traditional medicine.

Cite this article:
Geetha Balasubramaniam, Mahendran Sekar, Maithili Varadarajan, Shrishailappa Badami. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Strobilanthes kunthianus in Experimental Animal Models. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(12):5844-5850. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.01018.5

Geetha Balasubramaniam, Mahendran Sekar, Maithili Varadarajan, Shrishailappa Badami. Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Strobilanthes kunthianus in Experimental Animal Models. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(12):5844-5850. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.01018.5   Available on:

1.    Castardo JC, Prudente AS, Ferreira J, Guimaraes CL, Monache FD, Filho VC, Otuki MF, Cabrini DA. Anti-inflammatory effects of hydroalcoholic extract and two biflavonoids from Garcinia gardneriana leaves in mouse paw oedema. J Ethnopharmacol 2008; 118(3):405-11.
2.    Guo LY, Hung TM, Bae KH, Shin EM, Zhou HY, Hong YN, Kang SS, Kim HP, Kim YS. Anti-inflammatory effects of schisandrin isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baill. Eur J Pharmacol 2008; 591:293-9.
3.    Ilavarasan R, Mallika M, Venkataraman S. Anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging activity of Ricinus communis root extract. J Ethnopharmacol 2006; 103:478-80.
4.    Sunarto PA. Materia Medica Indonesia. 1st Ed. Penerbitan Directorate Jenderwal Pengawasen Obat dan Makanan Jakarta, 1997.
5.    Kushumoto JT, Shimadu N, Kakiuchi M, Hattori M, Namba T. Inhibitory effects of Indonesian Plant extracts on reverse transcriptase of an R.N.A. tumour virus (I). Phytother Res 1992; 6:241-4.
6.    Ismail M, Manickam E, Dania A, Rahmat A, Yahaya A. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of Strobilanthes crispus leaf extract. J Nut Biochem 2000; 11:536-42.
7.    Jaksa S, Rahmat A, Obhman F, Ismail P, Mansor SM. Cancer induction and effect of Strobilanthes crispus leaf extract on liver histology and enzymes changes in rats. J Trop Plants 2004; 5:187-92.
8.    Yogespiriya S, Hanachi P, Patimah R, Asmah R, Fanziah O. Histological study during hepatocarciniogenesis in rats treated with Strobilanthes crispus extract. J Biol Sci 2005; 2:153-7.
9.    Pan ZA, Sun XF. Chinese Pharmacopoeia, 1st Edn. Council of China, Beijing, 2005, pp. 142-3.
10.    Ho YL, Chang YS. Studies on the antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects of Isatis indigotica root. Phytomed 2002; 9:419-24.
11.    Vaidya Sathe AS. Gharguti Ayushadhe. 1991.
12.    Rahmat A, Edvini S, Ismail P, Yunthin T, Abu Bakar M. Chemical constituents, antioxidant activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oil from Strobilanthes inspus and Lawsonia inermis. J Biol Sci 2006; 6:1005-10.
13.    Nair RB, Ravishankar B, Vijayan NP, Sasikala CK, Saraswathy VN. Anti-inflammatory effect of Strobilanthes heyneanus leaves a biochemical study. J Res Ayurveda siddha 1988; 9:49-58.
14.    Desu BSR, Elango K, Satish Kumar MN, Suresh B, Manimaran S, Nanjan MJ. In-vitro anti-inflammatory and anti-osteoarthritic activities of Strobilanthes kunthianus and Strobilanthes cuspidatus. Int J Res Pharm Chem 2011; 1(4):1265-8.
15.    Desu BSR, Elango K, Satish Kumar MN, Suresh B, Manimaran S, Nanjan MJ. Analgesic activity of Strobilanthes kunthianus and Strobilanthes cuspidatus. Int J Res Pharm Biomed Sci 2012; 3(1):435-8.
16.    Balasubramaniam G, Sekar M, Varadarajan M, Badami S. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Strobilanthes kunthianus against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Pharmacogn J 2020; 12(5):1143-51.
17.    Everlyne IM, Darsini DTP, Yadav SA. Unraveling antibiofilm potency of Strobilanthes kunthiana Nees T. Anderson ex Benth against throat-infectious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Indo American J Pharma Res 2016; 6(6):5707-16.
18.    Rajasekaran A, Loganathan V, Jaewanth A, Jayakar B. Central nervous activity of Strobilanthes kunthiana leaf. Hamdard Medicus 2000; 43(1):38-40.
19.    Singh DN, Verma N, Kulshreshtha DK, Agrawal AK. In-vitro antigiardial activity of ethanolic extract and fractions from Phlebophyllum kunthianum. J Nat Rem 2012; 12(1):68-71.
20.    Everlyne IM, Sangilimuthu AY, Darsini DTP. Spectral analyses of the bioactive compounds present in the ethanolic leaf extract of Strobilanthes kunthiana (Nees) T. Anderson ex Benth. Adv Biores 2015; 6(3):65-71.
21.    Kulkarni SK. Hand Book of Experimental Pharmacology, Vallabh Prakashan, New Delhi, India, 1999: 117-8.
22.    Vasudevan M, Gunnam KK, Parle M. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of Daucus carota seeds extract. J Health Sci 2006; 52:598-606.
23.    Arul V, Miyazaki S, Dhananjayana R. Studies on the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of the leaves of Aegle marmelos. J Ethnopharmacol 2005; 4:159-63.
24.    Swingle KF, Shideman FE. Phases of the inflammatory response to subcutaneous implantation of a cotton pellet and their modification by certain anti-inflammatory agents. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 1972; 183:226-34.
25.    Greenwald RA. Animal models for evolution of arthritic drug. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol 2000; 13:75-83.
26.    Linardi A, Costa SKP, DeSilva GR, Antunes E. Involvement of kinins, mast cells and sensory neurons in the plasma exudation and paw edema induced by Styphylococcal entrotoxin B in the mouse. European J Pharmacol 2002; 399:235-42.
27.    Cuman RKN, Bersani-Amadio CA, Fortes ZB. Influence of Type 2 diabetes on the inflammatory response in rats. Inflamm Res 2001; 50:460-5.
28.    Spector WG. The granulomatous inflammatory exudates. Int Rev Exp Pathol 1969; 8:1-55.
29.    Dunne MW. Concepts of Altered Health States. Lippincott, Philadelphia, 1990; pp. 165-76.
30.    Oyanagui Y. Various actions of active oxygens on inflammatory processes. Japanese J Inflamm1983; 3: 377-8.
31.    Shingu M, Todoroki T, Oribe M, Tomooka K, Nobunaga M, Nakagami K. Study on the mechanism of oxygen radical-induced inflammation. Japanese J Inflamm 1982; 2:367-8.
32.    Yoshikawa T, Tanaka H, Kondo M. The increase of lipid peroxidation in rat adjuant arthritis and its inhibition by superoxide dismutase. Biochem Med 1985; 3:320-6.
33.    Yoshino K, Higashi N, Koga K. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Oregano Extract. J Health Sci 2006; 52(2):169-73.
34.    Shakkeel MKV, Kumar A, Babu VD, Swamy NVB. Pharmacological evaluation of Trichilia connaroides bark for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity in experimental animal models. Asian J Pharm Res 2015; 5(3):138-44.
35.    Narapusetty N, Sivaiah O, Balanasaraiah B, Haranadhbabu M, Prasad B, Crown BH, Prasada Rao MM. Anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of Basella alba in acute and sub-acute model. Asian J Pharm Res 2017; 7(2):88-93.
36.    Karthik KNS, Kumar KR. Evaluation of analgesic, anti-Inflammatory of stem bark ethanolic Extract of Michelia champaca Linn. Asian J Pharm Res 2017; 7(2):94-7.
37.    Chopade AR, Sayyad FJ. Analysis of the central and peripheral mechanisms underlying the analgesic effects of the extracts of Phyllanthus amarus and Phyllanthus fraternus. Asian J Pharm Res 2013; 3(1):10-4.
38.    Malviya KG, Shivhare UD, Srivastav P, Shivhare SC. Evaluation of analgesic potential of Cyathocline lyrata cass plant in rats by using tail flick and hot plate method. Asian J Pharm Res 2013; 3(2):82-5.
39.    Paul S, Saha D. Analgesic activity of methanol extract of Alpinia conchigera Griff by acetic acid induced writhing method. Asian J Res Pharm Sci 2012; 2(2):58-61.
40.    Sreejith M, Kannappan N, Santhiagu A, Ajith PM. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of aerial parts of Flacourtia sepiaria Roxb. Asian J Res Pharm Sci 2015; 5(1):12-7.
41.    Kothapalli PK, Sanganal SJ, Shridhar NB, Narayanaswamy HD, Narayanaswamy M. In-vivo anti-inflammatory and analgesic screening of Ficus bengalensis Leaf extract in rats. Asian J Res Pharm Sci 2014; 4(4):174-8.
42.    Deshmukh DB, Sherkar MR. Evaluation of in-vivo analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of medicinal plant-Lagenaria siceraria. Asian J Pharm Tech 2019; 9(2):75-8.
43.    Shekar DS, Velmurugan C, Ramakrishnan G, Vivek B. Anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic and acetone extracts of Bauhnia variegate. Research J Pharma Dosage Forms and Tech 2009; 1(2):97-9.
44.    Winter CA, Risley GA, Nass GW. Carrageenan-induced edema in hind paw of the rat as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1962; 3:544-7.
45.    Balasubramaniam G, Sekar M, Badami S. Pharmacognostical, physicochemical and phytochemical evaluation of Strobilanthes kunthianus (Acanthaceae). Pharmacogn J 2020; 12(4):731-41.
46.    Balasubramaniam G, Sekar M, Ravi S, Badami S. Isolation and structural characterization of phytoconstituents from Strobilanthes kunthianus. Pharmacogn J 2020; 12(6): DOI: 10.5530/pj.2020.12.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available