Author(s): Sulochana Kaushik, Lalit Dar, Samander Kaushik, Ramesh Kumar, Devender Kumar, Jaya Parkash Yadav


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01025   

Address: Sulochana Kaushik1, Lalit Dar2, Samander Kaushik3, Ramesh Kumar2, Devender Kumar2, Jaya Parkash Yadav1*
1Department of Genetics, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana, India.
2Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Delhi-110029, India.
3Centre for Biotechnology, Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak-124001, Haryana, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 11,     Year - 2021

Dengue is transmitted by female Aedes mosquitoes. It has been reported that about 2.5 billion peoples are at the risk of dengue virus. Millions of cases of dengue virus occur worldwide each year. There is no antiviral drug available still. Hence, the researchers are in the search of new anti-dengue drugs from natural products. The present study is aimed to determine the anti-dengue activity of supercritical extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Berberis vulgaris, Carica papaya, Euphorbia hirta, Phyllanthus niruri and Tinospora cordifolia in vitro and in silico. The cell viability was evaluated in C6/36 cells line by using MTT assay using a microplate reader at 595 nm. The maximum non-toxic dose of C. papaya and B. vulgaris extracts were reported as 46.87µg/ml, 31.25µg/ml for A. paniculata, P. niruri and E. hirta and 23.43 µg/ml, for T. cordifolia. Further, the anti-dengue activity of plants extract was analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. 100 copies/ml of DENV-2 virus was used for the antiviral assay. A. paniculata supercritical extract showed complete inhibition against the dengue-2 virus at 40ºC temperature and 15Mpa pressure. The other plant extracts showed the inhibition in order of T. cordifolia (83.44%) > C. papaya (34.71%) > E. hirta (28.70%) whereas P. niruri and B. vulgaris failed to inhibit dengue virus. Andrographolide a major compound present in A. paniculata has been reported to have antiviral activity against hepatitis B, C virus, herpes simplex virus, influenza virus, chikungunya virus, dengue virus 2 and 4. Results of molecular docking showed that the interaction between andrographolide and NS1protein shows the maximum binding energy -7.30 Kcal/mol. The docking study was conducted to validate the result against the anti-dengue activity using dengue NS1 protein with andrographolide. It was concluded that A. paniculata could be a source for isolation of therapeutic compounds against the dengue-2 virus.

Cite this article:
Sulochana Kaushik, Lalit Dar, Samander Kaushik, Ramesh Kumar, Devender Kumar, Jaya Parkash Yadav. In vitro and in silico Anti-dengue activity of Supercritical extract of medicinal plants against Dengue serotype-2. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(11):5895-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01025

Sulochana Kaushik, Lalit Dar, Samander Kaushik, Ramesh Kumar, Devender Kumar, Jaya Parkash Yadav. In vitro and in silico Anti-dengue activity of Supercritical extract of medicinal plants against Dengue serotype-2. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(11):5895-2. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01025   Available on:

1    Hotta S. Experimental studies on dengue: I. Isolation, identification and modification of the virus. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 1952; 90(1): 1-9.
2    Sabin AB, Schlesinger RW. Production of immunity to dengue with virus modified by propagation in mice. Science. 1945; 101(2634): 640-642.  
3    Beauté J, Vong S. Cost and disease burden of dengue in Cambodia. BMC Public Health 2010; 10(1): p521.
4    Rothwell C, LeBreton A, Ng CY et al. Cholesterol biosynthesis modulation regulates dengue viral replication. Virology. 2009; 389(1-2): 8-19.
5    Olliaro P, Fouque F, Kroeger A et al. Improved tools and strategies for the prevention and control of arboviral diseases: A research-to-policy forum. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2018; 12(2): e0005967.
6    Halstead SB. Dengue virus-mosquito interactions. Annual Review of Entomology. 2008; 53(2008): 273-291. https://doi: 10.1146/annurev.ento.53.103106.093326
7    Dar L, Broor S, Sengupta S et al. The first major outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Delhi, India. Emerging Infectious Disease. 1999; 5(4): 589-590.
8    Kabra SK, Verma IC, Arora NK et al. Dengue haemorrhagic fever in children in Delhi. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 1992; 70(1): 105-108.
9    Marimuthu P, Ravinder JR. Trends in clinical trials of dengue vaccine. Perspectives in Clinical Research. 2016; 7(4): 161-164. https:// doi: 10.4103/2229-3485.192035
10    Tang LI, Ling AP, Koh RY et al. Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012; 12(1): 3.
11    11 Chan YS, Khoo KS, Sit NW. Investigation of twenty selected medicinal plants from Malaysia for anti-chikungunya virus activity. International Microbiology. 2016; 19(3): 175-182.
12    Piraino F, Brandt CR. Isolation and partial characterization of an antiviral, RC-183, from the edible mushroom Rozites caperata. Antiviral Research. 1999; 43(2): 67-78.
13    Forli S, Huey R, Pique ME et al. Computational protein-ligand docking and virtual drug screening with the AutoDock suite. Natural Product. 2016; 11(5): 905-919. https://doi: 10.1038/nprot.2016.0517
14    Acosta EG, Castilla V, Damonte EB. Infectious dengue-1 virus entry into mosquito C6/36 cells. Virus Research. 2011; 160 (1-2):173-179. 1016/j.virusres.2011.06.008
15    Medina F, Medina JF, Colón C et al. Dengue virus: isolation, propagation, quantification, and storage. Current Protocols in Microbiology. 2012; 27(1):15-2.
16    Ul Qamar MT, Maryam A, Muneer I et al. Computational screening of medicinal plant phytochemicals to discover potent pan-serotype inhibitors against dengue virus. Science Report. 2019; 9(1):1-27. 10.1038/s41598-018-38450-1
17    Kumoro AC, Hasan M. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata: effect of the solvent flow rate, pressure, and temperature. Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering. 2007; 15:877-883.
18    Ling APK, Khoo BF, Seah CH et al. Inhibitory activities of methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata and Ocimum sanctum against dengue-1 virus. In International Conference on Biological Environmental and Food Engineering: Bali, Indonesia. 2014; pp.4-5.
19    Santiago GA, Vergne E, Quiles Y et al. Analytical and clinical performance of the CDC real time RT-PCR assay for detection and typing of dengue virus. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 2013; 7(7): e2311.
20    Ramalingam S, Karupannan S, Padmanaban P et al. Anti-dengue activity of Andrographis paniculata extracts and quantification of dengue viral inhibition by SYBR green reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Ayu. 2018; 39(2): 87. 144_17
21    Rothan HA, Zulqarnain M, Ammar YA et al. Screening of antiviral activities in medicinal plants extracts against dengue virus using dengue NS2B-NS3 protease assay. Tropica Biomedicine. 2014; 31(2): 286-296.
22    Lee SH, Tang YQ, Rathkrishnan A et al. Effects of cocktail of four local Malaysian medicinal plants (Phyllanthus spp.) against dengue virus 2. BMC complementary Alternative Medicine. 2013; 13(1): 192.
23    Sharma V, Kaushik S, Pandit P et al. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from medicinal plants and evaluation of their antiviral potential against chikungunya virus. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology. 2019; 103(2): 881-891.
24    Jarukamjorn K, Nemoto N. Pharmacological aspects of Andrographis paniculata on health and its major diterpenoid constituent andrographolide. Journal of Health Sciences. 2008; 54(4): 370-381.  
25    Kumar RA, Sridevi K, Kumar NV. Anticancer and immunostimulatory compounds from Andrographis paniculata. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2004; 92(2-3): 291-295.
26    Lin TP, Chen SY, Duh PD et al. Inhibition of the Epstein–Barr virus lytic cycle by andrographolide. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2008; 31(11): 2018-2023.
27    Edwin ES, Vasantha-Srinivasan P, Senthil-Nathan S et al. Anti-dengue efficacy of bioactive andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata (Lamiales: Acanthaceae) against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Acta Tropica. 2016; 163:167-178.
28    Panraksa P, Ramphan S, Khongwichit S et al. Activity of andrographolide against dengue virus. Antiviral Research. 2017; 139: 69-78.
29    Sa V, Va R, Sa P et al. Virtual screening of phytochemicals that bind to dengue viral serotypes using molecular docking methods. International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research. 2018; 9 (3): 1-21.
30    Laughlin CA, Morens D M, Cassetti MC et al. Dengue research opportunities in the Americas. The Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2012; 206 (7):1121-1127.
31    Wintachai P, Kaur P, Lee RC et al. Activity of andrographolide against chikungunya virus infection. Sciences Reports. 2015; 18(5):14179.
32    Segun PA, Ogbole OO, Ismail FM et al. Resveratrol derivatives from Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Endl. display cytotoxicity and selectivity against several human cancer cell lines. Phytochemistry Research. 2019; 33(1):159-166. https:// doi 10.1002/ptr.6209
33    Sharma V, Sharma M, Dhull D et al. Zika virus: an emerging challenge to public health worldwide. Canadian Journal of Microbiology. 2020; 66(2):87-98.
34    Shanmugapriya E, Ravichandiran V, Aanandhi MV. Molecular docking studies on naturally occurring selected flavones against protease enzyme of Dengue virus. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2016; 9(7):929-32. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00178.5
35    Kaushik S, Kaushik S, Sharma Y et al. The Indian perspective of COVID-19 outbreak. VirusDisease. 2020; 4:1-8.
36    Seena H, Kannappan N, Kumar PM. In vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer activity of methanolic extract of Alangium salvifolium subsp. hexapetalum (Wangerin). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(8):3715-3719. DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00657.5
37    Datir SB, Patel AM, Patel AK et al. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of the aerial parts of the Abutilon indicum (Linn) Sweet (Malvaceae). Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2010; 2(5):324-327.
38    Suneetha B, Prasad KV, Soumya BR et al. Evaluation of In-vitro anti-oxidant activity of various extracts of Actinodaphne madraspatana leaves. Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2014; 6(1):1-4.
39    Babu M, Thomas SV, Sruthi TP et al. Evaluation of Cytotoxic Activity of Annona muricata Fruits and Leaves. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019;12(8):3802-3806.
40    Shelar MK, Patil MJ, Bhujbal SS. Phytochemical and Pharmacognostical Evaluation of Milky Mangrove Excoecaria agallocha Linn. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019; 12(3):1289-93.
41    Dwira S, Fadhillah MR, Fadilah F et al. Cytotoxic Activity of Ethanol and Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kenikir (Cosmos caudatus) against Cervical Cancer Cell Line (HELA). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019;12(3):1225-9. 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00203.8
42    Kousalya M, Geetha P, Jesuraja A et al. In-Vitro Study of Anthelmintic Activity of Eclipta prostrata (L) y various Extracts. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2017;10(1):58-60. 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00014.2
43    Sharma V, Kaushik S, Pandit P et al. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from medicinal plants and evaluation of their antiviral potential against chikungunya virus. Applied Microbiology Biotechnology. 2019; 103:881–91. 1007/s00253-018-9488-1.
44    Kaushik S, Kaushik S, Kumar R et al. In-vitro and in silico activity of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (Gaur) L. supercritical extract against the dengue-2 virus. VirusDisease. 2020; 1-9.
45    Tamilventhan A, Jayaprakash A. Larvicidal Activity of Terminalia arjuna Bark extracts on Dengue Fever Mosquito Aedes aegypti. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019;12(1):87-92. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00017.9
46    Kaushik S, Kaushik S, Sharma V et al.  Antiviral and therapeutic uses of medicinal plants and their derivatives against dengue viruses. Pharmacognosy Reviews. 2018; 12 (24): 77-185.
47    Kaushik S, Dar L, Kaushik S et al. Identification and characterization of new potent inhibitors of dengue virus NS5 proteinase from Andrographis paniculata supercritical extracts on in animal cell culture and in silico approaches. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2020; 2:113541. \

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available