Anita Lidesna Shinta Amat, Hilkatul Ilmi, Lidya Tumewu, Harianto Notopuro, Indah Setyawati Tantular, Achmad Fuad Hafid, Aty Widyawaruyanti
Anita Lidesna Shinta Amat1, Hilkatul Ilmi2, Lidya Tumewu2, Harianto Notopuro3, Indah Setyawati Tantular3, Achmad Fuad Hafid2,4, Aty Widyawaruyanti2,4*
1Faculty of Medicine, University of Nusa Cendana, East Nusa Tenggara 85228, Indonesia.
2Natural Product Medicine Research and Development, Institute of Tropical Disease, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia.
3Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60286, Indonesia.
4Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya 60115, Indonesia.
Volume - 14,
Issue - 12,
Year - 2021
Background: During malaria infection, oxidative stress arises due to the high metabolic rate of the multiplying parasite within the erythrocyte. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation and glutathione (GSH) has been suggested as a biomarker of oxidative stress. The Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction from the ethanol extract of Andrographis paniculata was shown to inhibit Plasmodium berghei in vivo. However, the antimalarial mechanism of the EA fraction, specifically on oxidative stress has not been investigated previously. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of the EA fraction on parasitemia levels, GSH and MDA levels of P. berghei infected rats. Methods: Female Wistar rats infected with P. berghei were divided into three groups. Group one received no treatment (negative control), group two was treated with 1.4 mg/200 g body weight of chloroquine diphosphate as positive control, and group three was treated with the EA fraction at a dose equal to andrographolide 3.5 mg/200 g body weight. The treatments lasted for four days (day 0 to day 3) and parasitemia was observed from day 0 to day 4. Rats were sacrificed and blood taken intracardially on day 4 after parasitemia observation. GSH was measured using an ELISA reader at a wavelength of 415 nm. MDA was observed via spectrophotometry at a wavelength of 532 nm. Results: The EA fraction at a dose equal to andrographolide 3.5 mg/200 g body weight was able to inhibit parasite growth by 81.97±9.14%. The GSH levels of the negative control, positive control and EA fraction treated group were 139.30±75.93 µMol/mL, 81.06±53.26 µMol/mL and 105.71±76.00 µMol/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the MDA level of negative control, positive control and EA fraction treated group were 11.18±0.70 nMol mL, 8.81±1.26 nMol/mL and 9.40±0.74 nMol/mL, respectively. No significant differences were detected between treatment groups regarding their GSH levels. Additionally, there was a significant difference in MDA levels between the negative control and positive control groups; as well as a significant difference between the negative control and the EA treated group. However, no significant difference in MDA levels between the EA fraction treated group and positive control group. Interestingly, a correlation was found between parasite growth inhibition and MDA levels among groups (p<0.05). Conclusion: The EA fraction of A. paniculata significantly decreased MDA levels which correlated significantly with parasitemia levels of P. berghei infected rats. The antimalarial activity of the EA fraction may have been correlated with oxidative stress mechanisms and this correlation could be explained in part by the decreased production of MDA.
Cite this article:
Anita Lidesna Shinta Amat, Hilkatul Ilmi, Lidya Tumewu, Harianto Notopuro, Indah Setyawati Tantular, Achmad Fuad Hafid, Aty Widyawaruyanti. The Effect of Andrographis paniculata Nees on Oxidative Stress and Parasitemia Levels of Plasmodium berghei Infected Rats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(12):6676-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01153
Anita Lidesna Shinta Amat, Hilkatul Ilmi, Lidya Tumewu, Harianto Notopuro, Indah Setyawati Tantular, Achmad Fuad Hafid, Aty Widyawaruyanti. The Effect of Andrographis paniculata Nees on Oxidative Stress and Parasitemia Levels of Plasmodium berghei Infected Rats. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(12):6676-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01153 Available on: https://www.rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-14-12-83
1. Niranjan A, Tewari SK, Lehri A. Biological activities of Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees) and its active principles-A review. Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources 2010;1(2):125-135.
2. Madhavi S, Prakash Rao S. Review literature: Andrographis paniculata. J Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics 2018; 10(4):166-170.
3. Chauhan ES, Sharma K, Bist R. Andrographis paniculata: A review of its phytochemistry and pharmacological activities. Research J Pharm and Tech 2019; 12(2):891-900.
4. Firdous J, Latif NA, Mona R, Mansor R, Muhamad N. Andrographis paniculata and its endophytes: A review on their pharmacological activities. Research J Pharm and Tech 2020; 13(4):2027-2030.
5. Tajuddin SA, Tariq M. Antiinflammatory activity of Andrographis paniculata Nees (Chirayata). Nagarjun 1983; 27:13-14.
6. Iwari Rk, Pandey R, Shukla SS, Tiwari P, Shah T. Antibacterial activity of aerial part of Andrographis paniculata. Res J Pharmacognosy and Phytochem 2014; 6(3):122-125.
7. Mary RNI, Banu N. Inhibition of antibiofilm mediated virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Andrographis paniculata. Research J Pharm and Tech 2017;10(1):141-144.
8. Geetha S, Rajeswari S. A preliminary study on Phytochemical screening, proximate and antibacterial activities of Andrographis paniculata seed extract. Research J Pharm and Tech 2019;12(5):2083-2088.
9. Mary RNI, Banu N. Antiquorum sensing potential of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata in Vibrio harveyi. Research J Pharm and Tech 2017; 10(2):449-452.
10. Verma N, Vinayak M, Antioxidant action of Andrographis paniculata on lymphoma, Mol Biol Rep 2008: 35:535-540.
11. Kaur N, Gupta J. Comparison of phytochemical extraction solvents for Andrographis paniculata. Research J Pharm and Tech 2017:10(5):1271-1276.
12. Rahman NNNA, Furuta T, Kojima S, Takane K, Ali Mohd M. Antimalarial Activity of extracts of Malaysian medicinal plants. J Ethnopharmacol 1999; 64 (3), 249–254.
13. Mishra K, Dash AP, Swain BK, Dey N. Antimalarial activities of Andrographis paniculata and Hedyotis corymbosa extracts and their combination with curcumin. Malaria J 2009; 8 (26), 1-9.
14. Mamatha A. Brine shrimp lethality test of Andrographis paniculata. Research J Pharm and Tech 2014; 7(7):743-745.
15. Mishra K, Dash AP, Dey N. Andrographolide: A novel antimalarial diterpene lactone compound from Andrographis paniculata and its interaction with curcumin and artesunate. J Trop Med 2011; 1-6.
16. Widyawaruyanti A, Astrianto D, Ilmi H, Tumewu L, Setyawan D, Widiastuti E et al, Antimalarial activity and survival time of Andrographis paniculata fraction (AS202-01) on Plasmodium berghei infected mice. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biological and Chemical Sciences 2017; 8(1S): 49-54.
17. Kavishe RA, Koenderink JB, Alifrangis M. Oxidative stress in malaria and artemisinin combination therapy: Pros and Cons. FEBS J 2017; 284:2579-2591.
18. Bilgin R, Yalcin MS, Yucebilgic G, Koltas IS, Yazar S. Oxidative stress in vivax malaria. Korean J Parasitol 2012; 50(4):375-377.
19. Zhang Z, Chan GK, Li J, Fong WF, Cheung HY. Molecular Interaction between Andrographolide and Glutathione Follows Second Order Kinetics. Chem Pharm Bull 2008; 56(9): 1229-1233.
20. Pandey AV, Chauhan VS. Heme polymerization by malarial parasite: a potential target for antimalarial drug development. Current Science 1998; 75(9): 911-918.
21. Duran-Bedolla J, Rodriguez MH, Saldana-Navor V, Cerbon M. Oxidative Stress: Production in Several Processes and Organelles During Plasmodium sp Development. Oxidants and Antioxidants in Medical Science 2013; 2(2): 93-100.
22. Zhang Z. Reactions and Computational Studies of Andrographolide Analogues with Glutathione and Biological Nucleophiles. 2007. Thesis: University of Hongkong.
23. Meierjohann S, Walter RD, Muller S. Regulation of Intracellular Glutathione Levels in Erythrocytes Infected with Chloroquine-sensitive and Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum. Biochem J 2002; 368(Pt3):761-8.
24. Ngaha EO. Some biochemical changes in the rat during repeated chloroquine administration. Toxicology Letters 1982; 10: 145-149.