Author(s): Mohd Alaraj

Email(s): malaraj@meu.edu.jo

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00073   

Address: Dr. Mohd Alaraj
Associate Professor and Head of Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Middle East University, Amman, Jordan.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2022


ABSTRACT:
Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has created a significant global challenge with respect to the search for specific and effective pharmacological agents with fewer adverse effects for treating this disease. To date, no effective therapy for COVID-19 has been established. Recent virological studies suggest an assortment of potential therapeutics, which could be good candidates for minimizing disease development. One of the most effective potential medications is Remdesivir, which has demonstrated in-vitro antiviral activity and is the first COVID-19 drug approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Adjunct medical care is used as an extra treatment method in addition to the essential treatment, for example, glucocorticoids, which cause a decline in the death rate in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. More clinical preliminary studies should be conducted to explore the most effective pharmacological agent for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus causing COVID-19. Numerous possible drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that may take place with the COVID-19 repurposed drugs and other medications have been identified. These facts might be beneficial for physicians to screen and identify potential DDIs with adverse consequences, and accordingly styling preventive and management approaches for their avoidance.


Cite this article:
Mohd Alaraj. Pharmacological repurposed agents for COVID-19. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(1):441-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00073

Cite(Electronic):
Mohd Alaraj. Pharmacological repurposed agents for COVID-19. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(1):441-6. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00073   Available on: https://www.rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-1-73


REFERENCES:
1.    Akshay R. Yadav, Shrinivas K. Mohite. A Review on Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI) and its Clinical Management in Suspect/ Confirmed Novel Coronavirus (nCoV) Cases. Res. J. Pharma. Dosage Forms and Tech.2020; 12(3):178-180.
2.    Yin Y, and Wunderink RG. MERS, SARS and other coronaviruses as causes of pneumonia. Respirology. 2018; 23(2):130–137. doi: 10.1111/resp.13196.
3.     B. V. Naresh. A Review of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2020; 10(3):233-238.
4.    Shen M, Peng Z, Xiao Y, and Zhang L. Modelling the epidemic trend of the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in China. bioRxiv. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.01.23.916726
5.    Manisha Rokade, Pradnya Khandagale. Coronavirus Disease: A Review of a New Threat to Public Health. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2020; 10(3):241-244.
6.    Darshana Kumari Wankhede. COVID-19- Problem faced by Indians during Lockdown. Asian J. Nursing Education and Research. 2020; 10(4):501-504.
7.     Manisha Rokade, Pradnya Khandagale. Coronavirus Disease: A Review of a New Threat to Public Health. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2020; 10(3):241-244.
8.    Shivom, Shambaditya Goswami, Nikita Pal, Ravindra Pal Singh, Asheesh Singh, M V Kumudhavalli. A Meticulous Interpretation on a Sanguinary Disease COVID-19. Res. J. Pharma. Dosage Forms and Tech.2020; 12(3):231-233.
9.    Patel Vishakha D, Raj Hasumati A, Gheewala Nirav. Pharmacology of Combined Amiodarone Hydrochloride and Ranolazine Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 5(4): Oct.-Dec. 2015; Page 234-238.
10.    Matarese A, Gambardella J, Sardu C, Santulli G. miR-98 regulates TMPRSS2 expression in human endothelial cells: key implications for COVID-19. Biomedicines. 2020;8(11):462.
11.    Kumar R, Srivastava JK, Singh R, et al.. Available compounds with therapeutic potential against Covid-19: antimicrobial therapies, supportive care, and probable vaccines. Front Pharmacol. 2020;6:582025. doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.582025
12.    Fantini J, Di Scala C, Chahinian H, Yahi N. Structural and molecular modelling studies reveal a new mechanism of action of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020;55:105960. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105960
13.    Schrezenmeier E, Dörner T. Mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine: implications for rheumatology. Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 2020;16(3):155-66.
14.    Jianjun G, Zhenxue T and Xu Y. Breakthrough: Chloroquine phosphate has shown apparent efficacy in treatment of COVID-19 associated pneumonia in clinical studies. Bioscience Trends. 2020; 14 (1): 72-73.
15.     Vaishnavi. K. Patil, Azam. Z. Shaikh. Corona (Covid - 19). Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2020; 10(4):275-285.
16.    Al-Tawfiq JA, Al-Homoud AH, and Memish ZA. Remdesivir as a possible therapeutic option for the COVID-19. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2020; 34: page undefined. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101615Get
17.    Chen C, Huang J, Cheng Z, et al. Favipiravir versus Arbidol for COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial. medRxiv. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.17.20037432
18.    Kumar Y, Singh H, Patel CN. In silico prediction of potential inhibitors for the main protease of SARS-CoV-2 using molecular docking and dynamics simulation based drug-repurposing. Journal of infection and public health. 2020;13(9):1210-23.
19.    Joseph BA, Dibas M, Evanson KW, Paranjape G, Vegivinti CT, Selvan PT, Saravu K, Gupta N, Pulakurthi YS, Keesari PR, Varsha S. Efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review. Expert review of anti-infective therapy. 2021 Jun 3;19(6):679-87.
20.    Mireles-Vieyra MD, Rodríguez-Lara M, Cruz-Mireles RM. Incorrect Disqualification of Lopinavir/ritonavir in SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic. Academia Letters. 2021:2.. https://doi.org/10.20935/AL2043.
21.    Horby PW, Mafham M, Bell JL, Linsell L, Staplin N, Emberson J, ... and Green C. Lopinavir–ritonavir in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial. The Lancet. 2020; 396(10259): 1345-1352.
22.    Lim J, Jeon S, Shin HY, Kim MJ, Seong YM, Lee WJ, ... and Park SJ. Case of the index patient who caused the tertiary transmission of COVID-19 infection in Korea: the application of lopinavir/ritonavir for the treatment of COVID-19 infected pneumonia monitored by quantitative RT-PCR. Journal of Korean medical science. 2020; 35(6): e79
23.    Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, Liu W, Wang J, Fan G, ... and Li X. A trial of lopinavir–ritonavir in adults hospitalized with severe Covid-19. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2020; 382: 1787-99. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa2001282
24.    Tong S, Su Y, Yu Y, Wu C, and Chen J, Wang S, and Jiang J. Ribavirin therapy for severe COVID-19: a retrospective cohort study. International journal of antimicrobial agents. 2020; 56(3): 106114‏
25.    Dong L, Hu S, and Gao J. Discovering drugs to treat coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19). Drug discoveries and therapeutics. 2020; 14(1): 58-60. doi:10.5582/ddt.2020.01012
26.    Foolad F, Aitken SL, Shigle TL, et al. Oral versus aerosolized ribavirin for the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections in hematopoietic cell transplant recipients. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2019; 68(10):1641-1649. doi:10.1093/cid/ciy760
27.    Stockman LJ, Bellamy R, and Garner P. SARS: a systematic review of treatment effects. PLoS Med. 2006; 3(9): e343.
28.    Altınbas S, Holmes JA, and Altınbas A. Hepatitis C virus infection in pregnancy: an update. Gastroenterology Nursing. 2020; 43(1):12-21.
29.    ClinicalTrials.gov. Accessed March 18, 2020. https://clinicaltrials.gov/
30.    Kadam RU, and Wilson IA. Structural basis of influenza virus fusion inhibition by the antiviral drug Arbidol. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2017; 114(2):206- 214.
31.    Wang Z, Yang B, Li Q, Wen L, and Zhang R. Clinical Features of 69 cases with coronavirus disease 2019 In Wuhan, China. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2020; 71(15):769-777
32.    Morra ME, Van Thanh L, Kamel MG, et al. Clinical outcomes of current medical approaches for the Middle East respiratory syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Reviews in Medical Virology. 2018; 28(3): e1977.
33.    National Health Commission and the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Diagnosis and treatment protocol for novel coronavirus pneumonia. Accessed March 18, 2020. https://www.chinalawtranslate.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Who-translation.pdf
34.    Fallahzadeh, Mohammad, Mohamad Amin Pourhoseingholi, Sajad Besharati, Masoud Ghanbari Boroujeni, Masoud Mardani, Minoosh Shabani, Shervin Shokouhi et al. "Efficacy of Interferon β-1a in Treatment of Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients; SBMU Taskforce on the COVIFERON Study." (2021).
35.    Monk PD, Marsden RJ, Tear VJ, Brookes J, Batten TN, Mankowski M, Gabbay FJ, Davies DE, Holgate ST, Ho LP, Clark T. Safety and efficacy of inhaled nebulised interferon beta-1a (SNG001) for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine. 2021;9(2):196-206.
36.    Nakhlband A, Fakhari A, Azizi H. Interferon-beta offers promising avenues to COVID-19 treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis of clinical trial studies. Naunyn-schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 2021:1-0.
37.    Chikanza IC. Mechanisms of corticosteroid resistance in rheumatoid arthritis: a putative role for the corticosteroid receptor beta isoform. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2020; 966:39–48.
38.    Newman SP, Flower RJ, and Croxtall JD. Dexamethasone suppression of IL-1β induced cyclooxygenase 2 expression is not mediated by lipocortin-1 in A549 cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications.1994; 202: 931–9.
39.    Zhong J, Tang J, Ye C, and Dong L. The immunology of COVID-19: is immune modulation an option for treatment? Lancet Rheumatology. 2020; 2: e428–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2665-9913(20)30120-X
40.    Sterne JA, Murthy S, Diaz JV, Slutsky AS, Villar J, Angus DC, Annane D, Azevedo LC, Berwanger O, Cavalcanti AB, Dequin PF. Association between administration of systemic corticosteroids and mortality among critically ill patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis. Jama. 2020;324(13):1330-41.
41.    Pasin L, Navalesi P, Zangrillo A, Kuzovlev A, Likhvantsev V, Hajjar LA, Fresilli S, Lacerda MV, Landoni G. Corticosteroids for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) with different disease severity: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Journal of cardiothoracic and vascular anesthesia. 2021;35(2):578-84.
42.    Patel Vishakha D, Raj Hasumati A, Gheewala Nirav. Pharmacology of Combined Amiodarone Hydrochloride and Ranolazine Therapy in Atrial Fibrillation. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 5(4): Oct.-Dec. 2015; Page 234-238.
43.    Bhavimani Guru, Nitin M.. Pharmacological Studies on Drug-Drug Interactions between Antidiabetic Drug (Glibenclamide) and Selective Anti-HIV Drug (Lamivudine) in Rats and Rabbits. Res. J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics.2017; 9(3): 117-121.
44.    Mozayani AR . Handbook of drug interactions: a clinical and forensic guide. Lionel (ed.), Springer Science and Business Media.2003.
45.    Cattaneo D, Pasina L, Maggioni AP, Giacomelli A, Oreni L, Covizzi A, ... and Gervasoni C. Drug–Drug Interactions and Prescription Appropriateness in Patients with COVID-19: A Retrospective Analysis from a Reference Hospital in Northern Italy. Drugs and ageing. 2020; 1-9.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

0.38
2018CiteScore
 
56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus


SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Recent Articles




Tags


Not Available