Author(s): Gulshan Kumar, Yashwant Kumar, Gaurav Kumar, Ajay Kumar Tahlan


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00882   

Address: Gulshan Kumar1,2*, Yashwant Kumar2, Gaurav Kumar1, Ajay Kumar Tahlan2
1Department of Microbiology, School of Bioengineering and Biosciences, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara- 144411, Punjab, India.
2Central Research Institute, Kasauli -173204, Himachal Pradesh, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 11,     Year - 2022

Serotyping is the most widely used epidemiological marker to characterize pathogenic E. coli. Pathogenic E. coli is diverse as different serotypes are known to be prevalent in different area. Certain serotypes are known to be closely associated with pathotypes especially among diarrheagenic E. coli. Analysis of E. coli serotypes prevalence and its distribution pattern in different geographical area is important from better understanding its epidemiology and better control and management of E. coli diarrhea and non-intestinal infections. Present study was carried out to study prevalence of various “O”serogroups in clinical E. coli isolates in India and its distribution in different geographical locations of the country. A total of 783 clinical isolates suspected to be E. coli comprising of 437 Intestinal (human diarrheal) and 346 extra-intestinal isolates (human UTI) were biotyped using conventional Biotyping method to confirm isolates as E. coli. A total 534 confirmed E. coli isolates were sero-typed using specific anti E. coli “O” antiserum by micro titer plate agglutination assay. The 534 E. coli isolates were found to be clustered over 36 different groups. O8, O11, O22, O126, O88, O83, O35, O7, O149 and O141 being the most frequently detected “O” serogroups. Serogroup O157 was also detected in only seven isolates. Big six serotypes were not detected. This study indicates that diverse E. coli serotypes are in circulation in the country. With very low frequency of serogroup O157 frequently associated with EHEC/STEC.

Cite this article:
Gulshan Kumar, Yashwant Kumar, Gaurav Kumar, Ajay Kumar Tahlan. Sero-characterization of intestinal and extra-intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates from different geographical locations in India. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(11):5239-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00882

Gulshan Kumar, Yashwant Kumar, Gaurav Kumar, Ajay Kumar Tahlan. Sero-characterization of intestinal and extra-intestinal Escherichia coli (E. coli) isolates from different geographical locations in India. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(11):5239-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00882   Available on:

1.    Vila J, Saez-Lopez E, Johnson J R, Romling U, Dobrindt U, Canton R et al. Escherichia coli: an old friend with new tidings. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2016; 40 (4): 437-63. doi:
2.    Mohammed Shahid S, Umar N.Spectrum of antimicrobial activity of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus isolates from clinical samples. Research J Pharm and Tech 2015; 8(10): 1399-1402. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00251.6
3.    Harini S, Panigrahy A and Suneetha V. Escherichia coli is the dominant bacteria identified as contaminant in mobile phones. Research J Pharm and Tech. 2018; 11 (10) : 4252- 4256. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00779.5
4.    Mosavie M, Blandy O, Jauneikaite E ,  Caldas I, Ellington MJ,  Woodford N and Sriskandan S. Sampling and diversity of Escherichia coli from the enteric microbiota in patients with Escherichia coli bacteraemia. BMC Res Notes 2019; 12: 335
5.    Mohammed GJ and Mohammed SA. Grouping and relevation the significant virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolated rom patients with Urinary tract infections. Research J Pharm Tech. 2018; 11 (12):5483-5489. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00999.X
6.    Yuvaraj S and Gopinath P. Detection of lut-A genefor the presence of siderophore protein among clinical isolates of Escherichia coli. Research J Pharm and Tech 2016; 9(10):1591-1592. doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00314.0
7.    Gowtham R and Gopinath P. Detection of cell surface hydrophobicity among uropathogenic isolates of Escherichia coli. Research J Pharm and Tech. 2016; 9 (11): 1883-1885. doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00386.3
8.    Tamura K, Sakazaki R, Murase M and Kosako Y. Serotyping and categorisation of Escherichia coli strains isolated between 1958 and 1992 from diarrhoea1 diseases in Asia. J. Med. Microbiol. 1996 ; 45 : 353-58.
9.    Otaiwi MS, Tarrad JK and AL-Yasari HF. Prevalence of E. coli serotypes among diarrheal patients in Hilla city, Iraq. Research J Pharm and Tech. 2019; 12(7):3347-3349.doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00564.X
10.    Chhibber S, Bhardwaj SB and Aghi P (2014). Serotype profile and acid resistance of Escherichia coli strains isolated from different indian food. Asian Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology & Environmental Sciences Paper. 2014;16 (2): 395-98.
11.    Evans DJ, Jr., and Evans DG . Classification of Pathogenic Escherichia coli According to Serotype and the Production of Virulence Factors, with Special Reference to Colonization-Factor Antigens. Rev. Ifect Dis. 1983; 5(4):S692-S701.
12.    Orskov I and Orskov F. Serotyping of Escherichia coli. In Methods in Microbiology, Academic Press London; 1984; 14: 43-112. doi:
13.    Katrine G. Joensen, Anna M. M. Tetzschner, Atsushi Iguchi, Frank M. Aarestrup, Flemming Scheutz. Rapid and Easy In Silico Serotyping of Escherichia coli Isolates by Use of Whole-Genome Sequencing Data. J Clin Microbiol. 2015; 53 (8) 2410-2426. doi: 10.1128/JCM.00008-15
14.    Scheutz F, Cheasty T, Woodward D and Smith HR. Designation of O174 and O175 to temporary O groups OX3 and OX7, and six new E. coli O groups that include verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC): O176, O177, O178, O179, O180 and O181. APMIS 2004;112:569–584. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0463.2004.apm1120903.x
15.    Edwards P R and Ewing W. Identification of Enterobacteriaceae. (4th ed.), Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc., New York; 1986
16.    Vyas A, Singh K and Kumar G. Prevalence and drug resistance among bacteria of urinary tract infections in females in Punjab, India. Research J Pharm Tech. 2017; 10(2): 575-578. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00114.7
17.    Hasan MS, Hussain MA and Yousif AB.Confirmatory detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in diarrhoeic and non-diarrhoeic calves by using real time PCR with studying the antimicrobial susceptibility of these bacteria. Research J Pharm and Tech 2019; 12 (1): 245-250. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00046.5
18.    Rajesh KS, Honey VS, D’souza   UP, Sharma R and Bharat Raj KC. Study of antibiotic resistance pattern in uropathogen at a tertiary care hospital. Research J Pharm and Tech 2020; 13 (3): 1253-1256. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00231.0
19.    Anima N, Dhamodharan S and Nayak BK. Antibiotic resistance pattern exhibited by ESBL (Extended spectrum β-lactamases) in multidrug resistant strains, Escherichia coli. Research J Pharm and Tech. 2017; 10 (11): 3705-3708. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2017.00672.2
20.    Sagar S and Gopinath P. Detection of bla CTX-M gene for ESBL production among clinical isolates of Escherichi coli. Research J Pharm and Tech. 2016; 9 (10): 1593-1595.doi:10.5958/0958/0974-360X.2016.00315.2
21.    Lanjewar M, De AS, Mathur M. Diarrheagenic E. coli in hospitalized patients: Special reference to Shiga-like toxin producing Escherichia coli. Ind J Pathol Microbiol. 2010;:53:75-78.
22.    Wang F,Yang Q, Kase JA, Meng J, Clotilde LM, Lin A and Ge1 B. Current Trends in Detecting Non-O157 Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli in Food. Foodborne Pathogens and Dis. 2013; 10(8). doi: 10.1089/fpd.2012.1448
23.    Bai X, Hu B, Xu Y, Sun H, Zhao A, Ba P, et al. Molecular and Phylogenetic Characterization of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Strains in China. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 2016; 6:143. doi: 10.3389/fcimb.2016.00143
24.    Iguchi A, Mentzer A V, Kikuchi T and Thomson NR. An untypeable enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli represents one of the dominant types causing human disease. Microbial Genomics. 2017;3 doi: 0.1099/mgen.0.000121
25.    Thakur R, Kumar Y, Singh V, Gupta N, Vaish VB and Gupta S. Serogroup distribution, antibiogram patterns & prevalence of ESBL production in Escherichia coli. Ind J Med Res. 2016; 143: 521-524. doi:10.4103/0971-5916.184308
26.    Kaufmann F . The serology of E. coli group. Journal of Immunology 1947; 57: 71–100.
27.    Orskov F and Orskov I. Serotyping of Escherichia coli. Methods Microbiol. 1984; 14: 43–112.
28.    Orskov F, Orskov I. Escherichia coli serotyping and disease in man and animals. Can J Microbiol. 1992;38(7):699-704. PMID: 1382824.
29.    Sharma S, Kaur N, Malhotra S, Madan P, Ahmad W, and Hans C. Serotyping and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Escherichia coli Isolates from Urinary Tract Infections in Pediatric Population in a Tertiary Care Hospital. Journal of Pathogens.2016; 2016, Article ID 2548517, 4 pages Hindawi Publishing Corporation; doi: 10.1155/2016/2548517
30.    Chellapandi K, Dutta TK, Sharma I, Manda SD, Kumar  NS and Ralte L. Prevalence of multi drug resistant enteropathogenic and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli isolated from children with and without diarrhea in Northeast Indian population. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials. 2017; 16:49.doi :10.1186/s12941-017-0225-x
31.    Maloo A, Fulke AB, Mulani N, Sukumaran S and Ram A. Pathogenic multiple antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli serotypes in recreational waters of Mumbai, India: a potential public health risk. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017; 24(12):11504-11517. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-8760-8.
32.    Kausar Y, Chunchanur  SK, Nadagir SD , Halesh LH and Chandrasekhar MR. Virulence factors, Serotypes and Antimicrobial Suspectibility Pattern of Escherichia coli in Urinary Tract Infections. Al Ameen J Med Sci. 2 00 9; 2 (1 ):4 7 -5 1
33.    Maya AS, Prabhakar K , Hanna  LE  and Sarayu YL. Phenotypic and Genotypic Characterization of Extended Spectrum b-Lactamase Producing Escherichia coli Clinical Isolates from Semiurban Area. Journal of Pharmacy Res.2011; 4(1): 6-10
34.    Roy S, Datta S, Das P, Gaind R, Pal T, Tapader , Mukhrjee S and Basu S. Insight into neonatal septicaemic Escherichia coli from India with respect to phylogroups, serotypes, virulence, extended-spectrum-β-lactamases and association of ST131 clonal group. Epidem Infect. 2015; 143 (15): 3266-3276. doi:10.1017/S0950268815000539
35.    Maiya PP, Pereira SM, Mathan M, Bhat P, Albert MJ, and Baker SJ. Aetiology of acute gastroenteritis in infancy and early childhood in southern India. Arch Dis Child. 1977; 52(6): 482–485.
36.    Muni S, Kumar A, Shahi SK, Pankaj D, Sen A, Salila S. Diarrhoea with special reference to enteropathogenic E. coli in children below five years at a tertiary care centre. Int J Contemp Med Res. 2017; 4 (9):1934-1937.
37.    Brooks J T, Sowers E G, Wells J G, Greene KD, Griffin PM, Hoekstra R M et al. Non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in the United States, 1983–2002. J. Infect. Dis. 2005; 192: 1422–1429. doi: 10.1086/4 66536
38.    CDC (2011) Outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli O104 (STEC O104:H4) Infections Associated with Travel to Germany (FINAL UPDATE).
39.    Buchholz U , Bernard H,  Werber D, Böhmer MM, Remschmidt C, Wilking H, Deleré Y, an der Heiden M, Adlhoch C, Dreesman J, Ehlers J,  Ethelberg S, et. al. German Outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 Associated with Sprouts. N Engl J Med. 2011; 365:1763-1770. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1106482
40.    Karmali MA, Mascarenhas M, Shen S, Ziebell K, Johnson S, ReidSmith R, et al. Association of genomic O island 122 of Escherichia coli EDL 933 with verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli seropathotypes that are linked to epidemic and/or serious disease. J Clin Microbiol. 2003; 41:4930e40.
41.    Amezquita-Lopez BA, Soto-Beltran M, Lee BG, Yambao JC and Quinones B.Isolation, genotyping and antimicrobial resistance of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, Journal of Microbiology, Immun Infect. (2017);
42.    Sehgal R, Kumar Y, Kumar S. Prevalence and geographical distribution of Escherichia coli O157 in India: a 10-year survey. Trans Roy Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008 ; 102, 380—383.
43.    Verma S, Kumar M, Kashyap S, Singh M, Venkatesh V. Current scenario of escherichia coli and its serotype “O157:H7” in Indian subcontinent. Int J Innov Res Sci, Eng Tech. 2013; 2 (7): 2641-2644.
44.    Vijayan C, Ajaykumar VJ, Bhattacharya A and Bhanurekka V. Detection of enterohaemorrhagic E. Coli O157: H7 from beef and chevon sold in and around Puducherry . J. Ent. Zool St. 2017; 5 (6): 1395-1403.
45.    Cayalvizhi B, Balachandhar D S. Prevalence of Shiga‐like toxin producing Escherichia coli strain (E. coli O157) in freshly consumed vegetables and its characterization. J Food Saf . 2018;39 (1) e12577. doi 10.1111/jfs.12577
46.    Pralhad , Awati B, Ramesh BK, Patil NA, Kumar P, Jaganath Rao B et al. Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in faecal sample of heep and goats in North East Karnataka. Int.J.Curr.Microbiol.App.Sci.2018; 7(12): 242-250
47.    Khan A, Yamasaki S, Sato T, Ramamurthy T, Pal A, Datta S, et al. B. Prevalence and genetic profiling of virulence determinants of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli isolated from cattle, beef, and humans, Calcutta, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2002; 8(1):54-62. PMID: 11749749.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available