Author(s): Smitha Sammith Shetty, Vignesh Kamath, Shibani Shetty, Swapna Bettanapalya Venkatesh


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00156   

Address: Smitha Sammith Shetty1, Vignesh Kamath2, Shibani Shetty3, Swapna Bettanapalya Venkatesh4
1Associate Professor, Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Melaka Manipal Medical College, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal-576104, Karnataka.
2Senior Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, Karnataka.
3Reader, Department of Oral Pathology, M.R Ambedkar Dental College and Hospital Bangalore- 560005, Karnataka.
4Senior Lecturer, Department of Prosthodontics and Crown and Bridge, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal-576104, Karnataka.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 2,     Year - 2022

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a new evolving infectious disease characterized as atypical pneumonia caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2(SARS-CoV-2). It was first seen in Wuhan, China, and later spread across the globe led to a worldwide pandemic affecting millions of people. The usual manifestations of COVID-19 include cough, sore throat, fever, dyspnoea, and fatigue with exposure recently. Most of COVID-19 patients may have mild or moderate disease, whereas severe to life-threatening disease course is seen in 5–10% of the patients. Several clinical trials are presently trying to find the most effective drug or combination of the drugs for this disease. This article aims to discuss the treatment strategies in different forms of medicine that are being used for COVID-19 patients and review the literature available.

Cite this article:
Smitha Sammith Shetty, Vignesh Kamath, Shibani Shetty, Swapna Bettanapalya Venkatesh. An Overview on Treatment Strategies by Allopathic and Alternative Forms of Medicines in Management of COVID -19. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(2):935-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00156

Smitha Sammith Shetty, Vignesh Kamath, Shibani Shetty, Swapna Bettanapalya Venkatesh. An Overview on Treatment Strategies by Allopathic and Alternative Forms of Medicines in Management of COVID -19. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(2):935-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00156   Available on:

1.    Ke YY. Peng TT. Yeh TK. Huang WZ. Chang SE. Wu SH. et al. Artificial intelligence approach fighting COVID-19 with repurposing drugs. Biomed J. 2020; 43: 355-362. doi: 10.1016/
2.    Chauhan S. Comprehensive review of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Biomed J. 2020;43: 334-340. doi: 10.1016/
3.    Botros N. Iyer P. Ojcius DM. Is there an association between oral health and severity of COVID-19 complications? Biomed J. 2020; 143: 325-327. doi: 10.1016/
4.    Yang CW. Peng TT. Hsu HY. Lee YZ. Wu SH. Lin W et al. Repurposing old drugs as antiviral agents for coronaviruses. Biomed J. 2020;143: 368-374. doi: 10.1016/
5.    Talwar S. Sood S. Kumar J. Chauhan R. Sharma M. Tuli HS. Ayurveda and Allopathic Therapeutic Strategies in Coronavirus Pandemic treatment. Curr Pharmacol Rep. 2020;22: 1–10. doi: 10.1007/s40495-020-00245-2
6.    Jawla S. Gupta AK. Singla R. Gupta V. General awareness and relative popularity of allopathic, ayurvedic and homeopathic systems. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2009;1 (1):105-112.
7.    Kumar. Al Khodor S. Pathophysiology and treatment strategies for COVID-19. J Transl Med. 2020; 18:353.
8.    Allam L. Ghrifi F. Mohammed H. El Hafidi N. El Jaoudi R. El Harti J et al. Targeting the GRP78-Dependant SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry by Peptides and Small Molecules. Bioinform Biol Insights. 2020;14.
9.    Wang L. Wang Y. Ye D. Liu Q. Review of the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) based on current evidence. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2020; 55(6):105948. doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105948
10.    Coutard B. Valle C. de Lamballerie X. Canard B. Seidah NG. Decroly E. The spike glycoprotein of the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV contains a furin-like cleavage site absent in CoV of the same clade. Antiviral Res. 2020; 176:104742. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104742.
11.    Schoeman D. Fielding BC. Coronavirus envelope protein: current knowledge. Virol J. 2019;16(1):69.
12.    Khan SA. Zia K. Ashraf S. Uddin R. Ul-Haq Z. Identification of chymotrypsin-like protease inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 via integrated computational approach. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2020; 13:1–10.doi: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1751298.
13.    Singhal T. A review of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19). Indian J Pediatr. 2020;87:281-6.
14.    Chandwani A. Shuter J. Lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of HIV-1 infection: a review. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008; 4(5):1023–33. doi: 10.2147/tcrm.s3285.
15.    Chu CM. Cheng CC. Hung FN. Wong MM. Chan H. Chan S et al. Role of lopinavir/ritonavir in the treatment of SARS: Initial virological and clinical findings. Thorax. 2004; 59: 252-6. doi: 10.1136/thorax.2003.012658
16.    Chan KS. Lai ST. Chu CM. Tsui E. Tam CY. Wong MM et al. Treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome with lopinavir/ritonavir: A multicentre retrospective matched cohort study. Hong Kong Med J.2003; 9:399-406.
17.    Al-Tawfiq JA. Al-Homoud AH. Memish ZA. Remdesivir as a possible therapeutic option for the COVID-19. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020; 34:101615. doi: 10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101615
18.    Grein J, Ohmagari N. Shin D, Diaz G. Asperges E. Castagna A et al. Compassionate use of remdesivir for patients with severe Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020.doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2007016.
19.    Furuta Y. Komeno T. Nakamura T. Favipiravir (T-705), a broad-spectrum inhibitor of viral RNA polymerase. Proc Japan Acad Ser B. 2017. 93:449-63. doi: 10.2183/pjab.93.027.
20.    Sanders JM. Monogue ML. Jodlowski TZ. Cutrell JB. Pharmacologic Treatments for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A review. JAMA 2020; 323:1824-36. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.6019
21.    Stockman LJ. Bellamy R. Garner P. SARS: Systematic review of treatment effects. Low D, editor. PLoS Med 2006.3:e343. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.0030343
22.    Hung IF. Lung KC. Tso EY. Liu R. Chung TW. Chu MY et al. Triple combination of interferon beta-1b, lopinavir–ritonavir, and ribavirin in the treatment of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19: An open-label, randomized, phase 2 trial. Lancet. 2020; 395:1695-704. S0140-6736(20)31042-4
23.    Qayyumi B. Sharin F. Singh A. Tuljapurkar V. Chaturvedi P. Management of COVID-19: A brief overview of the various treatment strategies.Cancer Res Stat Treat. 2020;3: 233-243. doi: 10.4103/CRST.CRST_187_20
24.    Kupferschmidt K. Cohen J. Race to find COVID-19 treatments accelerates. Science. 2020; 367(6485):1412–3. doi: 10.1126/science.367.6485.1412
25.    Christian Funck-Brentano J-ES. Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine for COVID-19: why might they be hazardous? Lancet 2020.
26.    Turner RB. Felton A. Kosak K. Kelsey DK. Meschievitz CK. Prevention of experimental coronavirus colds with intranasal alpha-2b interferon. J Infect Dis. 1986 ;154:443-7. doi: 10.1093/infdis/154.3.443
27.    Morra ME. Van Thanh L. Kamel MG. Ghazy AA. Altibi AMA. Dat LM. et al. Clinical outcomes of current medical approaches for Middle East respiratory syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Rev Med Virol. 2018; 28:e1977. doi: 10.1002/rmv.1977
28.    Ahmad S. Shoaib A. Ali S.  Alam S. Alam N. Ali M. Mujtaba A. Ahmad A. Ansari S. Ali MD. Epidemiology, risk, myths, pharmacotherapeutic management and socio economic burden due to novel COVID-19: A recent update. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(9):4435-4442. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00784.2
29.    Kuser AK. Tarar SM. Kassid OM. Zayer NH. CNS and COVID-19: Neurological symptoms of Hospitalized Patients with Coronavirus in Iraq: a surveying case sequences study. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(12):6291-6294. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.01094.X
30.    Shen C. Wang Z. Zhao F. Yang Y. Li J. Yuan J. et al. Treatment of 5 critically ill patients with COVID-19 with convalescent plasma. JAMA. 2020. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.4783
31.    Sawarkar P. Sawarkar G. Integrative approach in Ayurveda for COVID -19- A Review. Int J Res Pharm Sci. 2020; 11(1):262–75.
32.    Shree P. Mishra P. Selvaraj C. Singh SK. Chaube R. Garg N. et al. Targeting COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease through active phytochemicals of ayurvedic medicinal plants–Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha), Tinospora cordifolia (Giloy) and Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi)–a molecular docking study. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2020; 1–14. doi: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1810778
33.    Yamaya M. Shimotai Y. Hatachi Y. Kalonji N lusamba. Tando Y. Kitajima Y. et al. The serine protease inhibitor camostat inhibits influenza virus replication and cytokine production in primary cultures of human tracheal epithelial cells. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2015; 33:66–74. doi: 10.1016/j.pupt.2015.07.001
34.    Latheef SK. Dhama K. Samad HA. Wani MY. Kumar MA. Palanivelu M. et al. Immunomodulatory and prophylactic efficacy of herbal extracts against experimentally induced chicken infectious anaemia in chicks: assessing the viral load and cell mediated immunity. Virus Disease. 2017; 28(1):115–20. doi: 10.1007/s13337-016-0355-3
35.    Kwon MJ. Shin HM. Perumalsamy H. Wang X. Ahn YJ. Antiviral effects and possible mechanisms of action of constituents from Brazilian propolis and related compounds. J Apic Res. 2020; 59(4):413 25.                 
36.    Kumar V. Dhanjal JK. Bhargava P. Kaul A. Wang J. Zhang H. et al. Withanone and Withaferin-A are predicted to interact with transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2) and block entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells. J Biomol Struct Dyn. 2020; 1–13. doi: 10.1080/07391102.2020.1775704
37.    Kalliantas D. KalliantaM.  Karagianni Ch, S. Homeopathy combat against coronavirus disease (Covid-19). Journal of Public Health: From Theory to Practice. 2020.
38.    Chaudhary A. Khurana A. A review on the role of Homoeopathy in epidemics with some reflections on COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2). Indian J of Res in Homoeopathy. 2020 ;14(2):100-109. doi.10.4103/ijrh.ijrh_34_20
39.    Qayyumi B. Sharin F. Singh A. Tuljapurkar V. Chaturvedi P. Management of COVID-19: A brief overview of the various treatment strategies. Cancer Res Stat Treat. 2020; 3:233-43. doi: 10.4103/CRST.CRST_187_20
40.    Dey JK. Mukherjee A. Dey SK.  Pramanik A. Giri S. Pratap M. A systematic review on the efficacies and therapeutic interventions of homoeopathic medicines in combating viral disorders with implications in the currently undergoing homoeopathic treatment efforts for SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19).International Journal of High Dilution Research. 2020; 19(3): 27-39.  
41.    Bala R. Srivastava A. Historical Journey of Homoeopathy during Epidemic Diseases in the Light of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pandemic. International Journal of Science and Healthcare Research .2020; 5(2); 215-233.
42.    KLA. Fok YYY. Homeopathic Clinical Features of 18 Patients in COVID-19 Outbreaks in Hong Kong. Homeopathy. 2020; 109(3):146-162. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1710545
43.    Basu N. Das BC. Tandon S. Interim Management of COVID-19 by Repurposed Homeopathic Medicines. Homeopathy. 2020; 109(3):182-183. doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1713004
44.    Deekshitulu PVB. Homeopathy Treatment For Corona Related Symptoms. International Journal of Nursing and Medical Science. 2020; 9(3); 10-11.
45.    Waisse S. Oberbaum M, Frass M. The Hydra-Headed Coronaviruses: Implications of COVID-19 for Homeopathy. Homeopathy. 2020; 109(3):169-175.  doi: 10.1055/s-0040-1714053
46.    Mor S. Saini P. Wangnoo SK. Bawa T. Worldwide spread of COVID-19 Pandemic and risk factors among Co-morbid conditions especially Diabetes Mellitus in India. Research J. Pharm. and Tech .2020; 13(5):2530-2532. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00450.3

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available