Author(s): Sivaji Sathiyaraj, Gunasekaran Suriyakala, Arumugam Dhanesh Gandhi, Thirumalpur Neelakandan Baskaran, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00272   

Address: Sivaji Sathiyaraj1, Gunasekaran Suriyakala1, Arumugam Dhanesh Gandhi2, Thirumalpur Neelakandan Baskaran1, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam3*
1Nano and Energy Bioscience Laboratory, Department of Biotechnology, Thiruvalluvar University, Serkkadu, Vellore - 632115, Tamil Nadu, India.
2Department of Chemical Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.
3Professor and Head, Department of Biotechnology, Thiruvalluvar University, Serkkadu, Vellore - 632115, Tamil Nadu, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 4,     Year - 2022

Natural products have gained more attention in healthcare and treating various diseases because of their promising antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer activity. The current research focused on reporting the antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activity of panchagavya (PG) which is a natural formulation of five cow products. The antibacterial activity of PG was studied against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, B. subtilis, and the maximum zone of inhibition was found to be 19.67±0.44, 23.50±0.29, 14.17±0.60, and 17.17±0.17mm respectively. The in vitro antioxidant study revealed the free radical scavenging activity of PG by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and hydrogen peroxide assays. The percentage of inhibition for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals was found to be 34.62, 49.58, 57.64, 69.12 and 75.79% while the hydrogen peroxide radicals was 23.27, 34.47, 46.53, 59.71 and 72.74% at 50, 100, 150, 200, 250µg/mL respectively. PG showed significant anticancer activity against the HepG2 cell line in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 value of 122 µg/mL. The findings of the present study may be useful for the discovery of novel antibacterial, antioxidant and anticancer agents from the natural cow products. However, further in vivo studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of PG on cancerous cells.

Cite this article:
Sivaji Sathiyaraj, Gunasekaran Suriyakala, Arumugam Dhanesh Gandhi, Thirumalpur Neelakandan Baskaran, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam. In vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer properties of Panchagavya. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(4):1631-5. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00272

Sivaji Sathiyaraj, Gunasekaran Suriyakala, Arumugam Dhanesh Gandhi, Thirumalpur Neelakandan Baskaran, Ranganathan Babujanarthanam. In vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer properties of Panchagavya. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(4):1631-5. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00272   Available on:

1.    Sweidan A. El-Mestrah M. Kanaan H. Dandache I. Merhi F. Chokr A et al Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of Scorzonera mackmeliana. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020; 33(1):199-206. doi: 10.36721/PJPS.2020.33.1.REG.199-206.1
2.    Masoumian M. Zandi M. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plant extracts against multidrug resistant bacteria. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences. 2017; 19(11). doi: 10.5812/zjrms.10080
3.    Mariyappan M. Bharathidasan R. Mahalingam R. Madhanraj P. Panneerselvam A. Ambikapathy V et al Antibacterial Activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum and Melothria heterophylla. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2011;1(4):111-3.
4.    Manandhar S. Luitel S. Dahal RK et al In vitro antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants against human pathogenic bacteria. Journal of Tropical Medicine. 2019; 2019. doi:
5.    Martelli G. Giacomini D. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities for natural and synthetic dual-active compounds. European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 2018; 158:91-105. doi: 10.1016/j.ejmech.2018.09.009
6.    Chua SL. Ding Y. Liu Y. Cai Z. Zhou J. Swarup S. Drautz-Moses DI. Schuster SC. Kjelleberg S. Givskov M. Yang L et al Reactive oxygen species drive evolution of pro-biofilm variants in pathogens by modulating cyclic-di-GMP levels. Open Biology. 2016; 1(11):160162. doi: 10.1098/rsob.160162
7.    Smirnova G. Muzyka N. Lepekhina E. Oktyabrsky O et al Roles of the glutathione-and thioredoxin-dependent systems in the Escherichia coli responses to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. Archives of Microbiology. 2016; 198(9):913-21. doi: 10.1007/s00203-016-1247-z
8.    Van Acker H. Coenye T. The role of reactive oxygen species in antibiotic-mediated killing of bacteria. Trends in Microbiology. 2017; 25(6):456-66. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.008
9.    Keren I. Wu Y. Inocencio J. Mulcahy LR. Lewis K et al Killing by bactericidal antibiotics does not depend on reactive oxygen species. Science. 2013; 339(6124):1213-6. doi: 10.1126/science.1232688
10.    Arshad L. Haque MA. Abbas Bukhari SN. Jantan I et al An overview of structure–activity relationship studies of curcumin analogs as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents. Future Medicinal Chemistry. 2017; 9(6):605-626. doi: 10.4155/fmc-2016-0223.
11.    Dwyer DJ. Kohanski MA, Collins JJ et al Role of reactive oxygen species in antibiotic action and resistance. Current opinion in microbiology. 2009; 12(5):482-9. doi: 10.1016/j.mib.2009.06.018
12.    Njoku OU. Elijah JP. Chukwudi CO et al Antioxidant Properties of Gongronema latifolia. Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2011; 4(9):1411-4.
13.    Jaydeokar AV. Bandawane DD. Nipate SS. Chaudhari PD et al Natural antioxidants: a review on therapeutic applications. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2012; 4(1):55-61.
14.    Al-Dabbagh B. Elhaty IA. Al Sakkaf R. El-Awady R. Ashraf SS. Amin A et al Antioxidant and anticancer activities of Trigonella foenum-graecum, Cassia acutifolia and Rhazya stricta. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2018;18(1):1-2. doi:
15.    Suriyakala G. Sathiyaraj S. Gandhi AD. Vadakkan K. Rao UM. Babujanarthanam R et al Plumeria pudica Jacq. flower extract-mediated silver nanoparticles: Characterization and evaluation of biomedical applications. Inorganic Chemistry Communications. 2021; 126:108470. doi:
16.    Rosadiani DW. Purwanti T. Purwanto DA et al Effect of Natrium Alginate Concentration on Physical Characteristics, Viability and Anticancer activity of Microparticles from a Combination of Probiotics and Tomato Pasta. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2018; 11(6):2575-80. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00476.6
17.    Sathiyaraj S. Suriyakala G. Gandhi AD. Saranya S. Santhoshkumar M. Kavitha P. Babujanarthanam R et al Green biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using vallarai chooranam and their potential biomedical applications. Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials. 2020; 30(11):4709-19. doi: 10.1007/s10904-020-01683-7
18.    Fadholly A. Ansori AN. Sucipto TH et al An Overview of Naringin: Potential Anticancer compound of Citrus Fruits. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020;13(11):5613-9. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00979.8  
19.    Arumugam DG. Sivaji S. Dhandapani KV. Nookala S. Ranganathan B et al Panchagavya mediated copper nanoparticles synthesis, characterization and evaluating cytotoxicity in brine shrimp. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology. 2019; 19:101132. doi:
20.    Balaji EV. Selvan A. Srinivasan A. Nandhini S et al Punica granatum root (s): Phytocompounds analysis, Anti-oxidant and Anti-microbial activity. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis. 2019; 9(3):123-7. doi: 10.5958/2231-5675.2019.00023.1   
21.    Potbhare M. Khobragade D. In Vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Potential of Ayurvedic Preparations Lauha Bhasma and Mandura Bhasma. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2017; 7(2):63-6. doi: 10.5958/2231-5691.2017.00011.9
22.    Suryawanshi A. Chougule P. Jain A et al In-vitro Antioxidant Activity of Hexanolic Extract of Trachyspermum ammi. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2015; 8(10):1403-8. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2015.00252.8
23.    Sonawane CS. Patil SD. Jagdale DM. Patil L. Kadam VJ et al In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Methanolic Extract of Leaves of Ornamental Plant Epipremnum aureum Linn. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2011; 4(8):1234-6.
24.    Rathi MA. Meenakshi P. Kumar DG. Raj CA. Sunitha M. Gopalakrishnan VK et al Leaves of Spermacoce hispida as a novel cancer therapeutic–An in vitro study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2011; 4(8):1288-91.
25.    Jarald E. Edwin S. Tiwari V. Garg R. Toppo E et al Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of cow urine. Global Journal of Pharmacology. 2008; 2(2):20-2.
26.    Jirankalgikar NM. Nariya PB. Athavale AV. De S et al Trividha Snehapaka of Panchagavya Ghrita: A critical comparative evaluation. Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine. 2013; 4(2):107. doi: 10.4103/0975-9476.113887
27.    Gajbhiye SP. More J. Kolte D et al Antimicrobial activities (antibacterial and antifungal) effect of panchagavya alone prepared by fermentation method. Word Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science. 2018; 7(7):1336-49.
28.    Deepika M. Nashima K. Rajeswari S et al Antimicrobial activity of panchagavya against urinary tract infection. International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Research. 2016; 8(3):68-70.
29.    Athavale A. Jirankalgikar N. Nariya P. Des S et al Evaluation of in-vitro antioxidant activity of panchagavya: a traditional ayurvedic preparation. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Research. 2012;1(3):2543-9. doi:
30.    Cooper GM. and. Hausman RE. The Cell: a molecular approach. 2000. ASM Press, Washington DC. 2007; 467-519.
31.    Yuan H. Ma Q. Ye L. Piao G et al The traditional medicine and modern medicine from natural products. Molecules. 2016; 21(5):559. doi: 10.3390/molecules21050559.
32.    Talokar OW. Belge AR. Belge RS et al Clinical evaluation of cow-urine extract special reference to Arsha (Hemmorrhoids). International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention 2013; 2(3):05-08.
33.    Khan MY. Roy M. Saroj BK. Dubey S. Sharma VK et al A Review-Benefits of Panchgavya therapy (Cowpathy) for health of humans. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Science. 2015;5(2):115-25. doi: 10.5958/2231-5659.2015.00019.3

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available