Author(s): Nawar Haddad, Jameela Hasian

Email(s): ,

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00332   

Address: Nawar Haddad, Jameela Hasian
Department of Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology, Damascus University, Syria.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 5,     Year - 2022

Topical Emulgels of Pregabalin were formulated using Carbopol 940 in combination with (PVP k90, PEG 200, PEG 1000, HPMC K15M) to obtain the optimal formula in terms of drug release rate. Physical appearance, pH, viscosity, stability, drug content, In-vitro drug release, Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, were tested in all formulas and evaluated to determine the best one. All formulations had good physical properties and stability, F2 which contains Carbopol 940 0.4% and HPMC K15M 0.4% gave the best drug release rate: (30% in 20 min and 93% in 360 min). But F3 which contains Carbopol 940 0.4% and PEG 200 10% showed the less release rate at 360 min: (64%). F2 showed Korsmeyer–Peppas model Kinetic release. So F2 was the best formula because it released drug since 10 min and still to 360 min (6 hours), thus F2 can be used to obtain rapid analgesic effect and avoid CNS-mediated side effects of Pregabalin.

Cite this article:
Nawar Haddad, Jameela Hasian. Effect of combination of some Polymers with Carbopol 940 on Pregabalin Release Rate from Emulgels. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(5):2003-9. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00332

Nawar Haddad, Jameela Hasian. Effect of combination of some Polymers with Carbopol 940 on Pregabalin Release Rate from Emulgels. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(5):2003-9. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00332   Available on:

1.    Sommer C, Cruccu G. Topical Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathic Pain: Applying the Evidence. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 2016 Sep 53(3), 614–629. doi:10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2016.09.015.
2.    Sen J, Parvati S, Sen B. Evaluation of Dermal analgesia for Venous Cannulation on application of Topical EMLA cream. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020. 1:13(3), 1495–1498. doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00272.3.
3.    Saraswathi B. et al. Formulation and Characterization of Tramadol Emulgel. Research Journal of Topical and Cosmetic Sciences. 2017 Dec. Sci 8(2), 53–60. doi: 10.5958/2321-5844.2017.00006.1.
4.    Raut S. et al. Comparative Evaluation of Zidovudine Loaded Hydrogels and Emulgels. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology . 2012 Jan. 1:5, 41–45.
5.    Shrikhande P V. Formulation and Evaluation of Polyherbal Topical Anti-Inflammatory Emulgel. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2013 Apr . 1:6, 118–122.
6.    Suryawanshi J S, Gawade S P. Enhanced anti-arthritic effect of mustard oil in Nanoemulgel Formulation : A comparative clinical study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology . 2020 .1:13(8), 3738–3744. doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00662.9.
7.    Kresnawati Y, Shantiningsih R R, Martien R. Optimization of Soybean Oil , Tween 80 , PEG 400 in Formulation of Beta Carotene Nanoemulsion. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020 .13(12), 5692–5698. doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00991.9.
8.    Dessai P, Mhaskar G M. Formulation and Evaluation of Ginger officinale Emulgel. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019 Aug. 12(4), 1559–1565. doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00258.0.
9.    Wermeling D P. et al. Microneedles permit transdermal delivery of a skin-impermeant medication to humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2008 Feb. 105(6), 2058–2063. doi:10.1073/pnas.0710355105.
10.    Kikwai L. et al. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of topical formulations of Spantide II. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. 2005 Oct. 6(4), 565–572 (2005). doi: 10.1208/pt060471.
11.    Phutane K R. et al. Design and Development of Allopurinol Emulgel. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2014 Jul. 7(7), 733–736.
12.    Zur E. Topical treatment of neuropathic pain using compounded medications. Clinical Journal of Pain. 2014 Jan. 30(1), 73–91. doi: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e318285d1ba.
13.    Sowmya J D. Topical Gels: A Recent Approach for Novel Drug Delivery. Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2013 Mar. 3(17), 1-5.
14.    Naik A, Kalia Y N, Guy R H. Transdermal drug delivery: Overcoming the skin’s barrier function. Pharmaceutical Science and Technology Today. 2000 Sep. 3(9), 318–326. doi: 10.1016/S1461-5347(00)00295-9.
15.    Panwar A S. et al. Emulgel : a Review. Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Life Science. 2011 Sep. 1(3), 333–343.
16.    Sharma V. et al. Emulgels. Polymeric Gels. 2018 .251–264. doi:10.1016/b978-0-08-102179-8.00009-0.
17.    Kumar L, Verma R. In vitro evaluation of topical gel prepared using natural polymer. International Journal of Drug Delivery. 2010. 1:2, 58–63. doi:10.5138/ijdd.2010.0975.0215.02012.
18.    Lee C H, Moturi V, Lee Y. Thixotropic property in pharmaceutical formulations. International Journal of Drug Delivery. 2009. 136(2), 88–98. doi: 10.5138/ijdd.2010.0975.0215.02012.
19.    QUIÑONES D. GHALY E S. Formulation and Characterization of nystatin gel. Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal. 2008 Mar. 1:27, 217–224.
20.    Eswaraiah S. et al. Emulgel : Review on Novel Approach to Topical Drug Delivery. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2014. 1:4, 4–11.
21.    Verma A, Jain A, Tiwari A, Jain, S K. Emulgels: Application Potential in Drug Delivery. Springer International Publishing. 2017 Oct. 343–371 doi:10.1007/978-3-319-66417-0_11.
22.    Mohamed M I. et al. Optimization of Chlorphenesin Emulgel Formulation. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. 2004 Oct. 6(3), 1–7.
23.    Baibhav J, Gurpreet S, Rana A C, Seema S. Development and characterization of clarithromycin emulgel for topical delivery. International Journal of Drug Development and Research. 2012 Sep. 4(3), 310–323.
24.    Technology A P, Vema K, Sciences P. Formulation and Evaluation of Aceclofenac Emulgel. International journal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research. 2015 Feb. 3(1), 52-57.
25.    Khan J. et al. Development and Evaluation of topical Emulgel of Aspirin using different Polymeric Bases. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020 Mar. 13(12), 6300–6304. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.01096.3
26.    Amminbavi D, Lakshmi N P. Assessment of In vitro wound healing potential of Hibiscus leaf extract Emulgel. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2020 June. 10(2), 67–72. doi: 10.5958/2231-5691.2020.00013.1.
27.    Basha D J, Murthy B S, Prakash P, Anuradha K. Preliminary Phytochemical Investigation and In Vitro Anti Bacterial Studies of Polycarpaea aurea Wight and Arn (Caryophyllaceae) Emulgel . Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2018 Sep .8(3), 151. doi: 10.5958/2231-5691.2018.00027.8.
28.    Shahin M, Abdel Hady S, Hammad M, Mortada N. Novel jojoba oil-based emulsion gel formulations for clotrimazole delivery. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. 2011 Mar. 1:12, 239–247. doi: 10.1208/s12249-011-9583-4.
29.    Khunt D M, Mishra A D, Shah D R. Formulation design and development of piroxicam emulgel. International Journal of PharmTech Research. 2012 Sep.3:4, 1332–1344.
30.    Bhanu P, Vijaya Bhanu V. Development and Optimization of Novel Diclofenac Emulgel for Topical Drug Delivery. International Journal of Comprehensive Pharmacy. 2011 Sep. 2(9), 2–5.
31.    Chauhan S B. et al. Formulation and Evaluation of Emulgel for the treatment of Acne. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020 Sep. 13(8), 3598–3602. doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00636.8.
32.    Whalen. Lippincott Illustrated Reviews: Pharmacology (Lippincott Illustrated Reviews Series) SEVENTH EDITION. Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling vol. 53 (2019).
33.    Siddall Phillip H A. Neuropathic pain: diagnosis and treatment today | NPS MedicineWise. Neuropathic pain: diagnosis and treatment today. 2018 Mar. 1–5.
34.    Dworkin R H. et al. Recommendations for the pharmacological management of neuropathic pain: An overview and literature update. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2010 Mar. 85(3) S3-S14. doi:10.4065/mcp.2009.0649.
35.    Freynhagen R. et al. A comprehensive drug safety evaluation of pregabalin in peripheral neuropathic pain. Pain Practice. 2015. 1:15, 47–57. doi: 10.1111/papr.12146.
36.    Chincholkar M. Gabapentinoids: pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and considerations for clinical practice. British Journal of Pain. 2020. 14, 104–114. doi: 10.1177/2049463720912496.
37.    British pharmacopeia.(2019).
38.    Summary Public Assessment Report Generics. Pregabalina Biofarmoz.
39.    National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 5486971, Pregabalin.  available on: 2021.
40.    Arafa M G, Ayoub B M. DOE Optimization of Nano-based Carrier of Pregabalin as Hydrogel: New Therapeutic and chemometric Approaches for Controlled Drug Delivery Systems. Scientific Reports. 2017 Jan. 7, 1–15. doi:10.1038/srep41503.
41.    Chakshu Bhatia M S, M. B. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TRANSDERMAL PATCH OF PREGABALIN. Dhaka University Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2012 Jan. 3(2): 569-575.
42.    Fukasawa H, Muratake H, Nagae M, Sugiyama K, Shudo K. Transdermal administration of aqueous pregabalin solution as a potential treatment option for patients with neuropathic pain to avoid central nervous system-mediated side effects. Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2014 Sep. 37(11), 1816–1819. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b14-00278.
43.    Mohsin S, Akhtar N, Mahmood T, Khan H, Mustafa R. Formulation and stability of topical water in oil emulsion containing corn silk extract. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2016 June, 15 (6):1115-1121. doi: 10.4314/tjpr.v15i6.1.
44.    Walash M I, Belal F F, El-enany N M, El-maghrabey M H. Utility of certain nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions for the assay of pregabalin in capsules. Chemistry Central Journal. 2011, 5:36.
45.    Clarence T, Ueda V P S. Topical and Transdermal Drug Products. The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. vol. 35 2256 .2009.
46.    Musa, S H, Basri M, Masoumi H R F, Shamsudin N, Salim N. Enhancement of physicochemical properties of nanocolloidal carrier loaded with cyclosporine for topical treatment of psoriasis: In vitro diffusion and in vivo hydrating action. International Journal of Nanomedicine. 2017 Mar. 12, 2427–2441. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S125302.
47.    Rockville, Md. U. S. P. Pharmacopeia United States Pharmacopeial Convention. 2004.
48.    Paarakh M P, Jose P A , Setty C M, Peter G V. Release Kinetics – Concepts and Applications. International Journal of Pharmacy Research and Technology. 2019 Jul. 8, 12–20. doi: 10.31838/ijprt/08.01.02.
49.    Jadi R K. et al. Design and Characterization of Pregabalin Swellable Core Osmotic Pumps. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Allied Sciences. 2016, 5(3):8-15.
50.    Naga Sravan Kumar Varma V. et al. Calcipotriol delivery into the skin as emulgel for effective permeation. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2014. 22, 591–599. doi: 10.1016/j.jsps.2014.02.007.
51.    Tan Y, Peh K, Al-hanbali O. Effect of Carbopol and Polyvinylpyrrolidone on the Mechanical , Rheological , and Release Properties of Bioadhesive Polyethylene Glycol Gels. American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. 2000 1(3).

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available