Author(s): Subhajit Ghosh, Padala Narasimha Murthy, Ankita Parmanik, Anindya Bose, Hanumanthachar Joshi


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00375   

Address: Subhajit Ghosh1*, Padala Narasimha Murthy2, Ankita Parmanik3, Anindya Bose3, Hanumanthachar Joshi1
1Sarada Vilas College of Pharmacy, Mysor - 570004, Karnatata, India.
2Royal College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Andhapasara Road, Berampur - 760002, Odisha, India.
3School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Siksha ‘O’ Anusandhan (Deemed to be University), Bhubaneswar - 751003, Odisha, India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 5,     Year - 2022

Kokilaksha Kashayam is a polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation prescribed for treating pain and inflammation. The scientific validation of the claimed pharmacological activities of this formulation has not been established yet. In the present work, the anti-inflammatory and Analgesic activity of freshly prepared in house Kokilaksha Kashayam as well as its marketed formulation were evaluated on experimental animals. The Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by carrageenan induces paw edema method, while the analgesic activity was evaluated by means of Eddy’s hot plate, tail-flick and formaldehyde induced tail flick methods. The results indicated that both in-house as well as marketed Kokilaksha Kashayam possess profound anti-inflammatory as well as analgesic property.

Cite this article:
Subhajit Ghosh, Padala Narasimha Murthy, Ankita Parmanik, Anindya Bose, Hanumanthachar Joshi. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic activities of Kokilaksha Kashayam, An Ayurvedic Formulation. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(5):2255-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00375

Subhajit Ghosh, Padala Narasimha Murthy, Ankita Parmanik, Anindya Bose, Hanumanthachar Joshi. Evaluation of Anti-inflammatory and Analgesic activities of Kokilaksha Kashayam, An Ayurvedic Formulation. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(5):2255-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00375   Available on:

1.    Abdollahi, M., Karimpour, H., Monsef Esfehani, H.R., Antinociceptive effects of Teucrium polium L. Total extract and essential oil in mouse writhing test. Pharmacol. Res. 2003; 48, 31–35.
2.    Aggarwal BB., Prasad S., Reuter S., Kannappan R., Yadev V.R., Park B., Kim J.H., Gupta SC. Phromnoi K., Sundaram C., Prasad S., Chaturvedi M.M., Sung B. Identification of novel anti-inflammatory agents from ayurvedic medicine for prevention of chronic diseases:“reverse pharmacology” and “bedside to bench” approach. Curr. Drug Targets.2011; 12 (11), 1595–1653.
3.    Anonymous, The Ayurvedic Formulary of India, Part 1, 2nd ed. The Controller of Publications, Delhi.2003.
4.    Sanu G Sam, Anjan Kumar, Veeresh Babu D, Narayana Swamy VB. Evaluation of Anti-diabetic and Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of whole plant of Inula racemosa. Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2015; 7(3): 129-134.
5.    M. Sugumaran, T. Vetrichelvan, S. Darlin Quine. Anti inflammatory activity of Folklore: Pithecellobium dulce Benth. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. Oct.-Dec. 2009; 2(4): Page 868-869.
6.    The Ayurvedic formulary of India, Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia Committee. Govt of India, Ministry of Heal than Family Welfare. Controller of Publications, New Delhi.2003.
7.    Ezeja M., Omeh Y., Ezeigbo I., Ekechukwu A., Evaluation of the analgesic activity of the methanolic stem bark extract of Dialium  guineense (wild). Ann. Med. Health Sci. Res.2011; 1, 55–62.
8.    Fernandes J.C., Spindola H., De T Sousa V., Santos Silva A., Pintado M.E., Malcata F.X., Carvalho J.E., anti-inflammatory activity of chito oligosaccharides in vivo. Mar. Drugs.2010; 8, 1763–1768.
9.    Balakrishnan N, Panda AB, Raj NR, Shrivastava A, Prathani R. The Evaluation of Nitric Oxide Scavenging Activity of Acalypha Indica Linn Root. Asian J. Research Chem. 2(2): April.-June, 2009. page 148-150.
10.    Subhajit Ghosh, Padala Narasimha Murthy, Hanumanthachar Joshi, Different Methods of Preparation, Evaluation and Comparison of One Traditional Oral Liquid Formulation for Potential Antihyperlipidemic Activity in Hyperlipidemic Wistar Rats. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 14(5): May 2021.pp.2426-2433.
11.    Chauhan NS, Dixit VK, Asteracantha longifolia (L.) Nees, Acanthaceae: Chemistry, traditional medicinal uses and its pharmacological activities-A review. Revista brasileira de Farmacognosia. 2010; 20(5):812-817.
12.    Dattatraya N et al. Kokilaksha: A Potential Ayurvedic Herb. IJRAP. 2012; 129(2):280-282.
13.    Libby P. Inflammation and cardiovascular disease mechanisms. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 2006; 83, 456S–460SS.
14.    Mac Micking J., Xie Q.W. Nathan C., Nitric oxide and macrophage function. Ann. Rev. Immunol. 1997; 15, 323-350.
15.    Nair A., Jacob S., A simple practice guide for dose conversion between animals and human. J. Basic Clin. Pharm. 2016; 7, 27.
16.    Nair V., Kumar R., Singh S., Gupta Y.K., Investigation into the anti-inflammatory and antigranuloma activity of Colchicum luteum Baker in experimental models. Inflammation 2012; 35(3), 881–888.
17.    Ojewole J.A. Analgesic, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycaemic effects of ethanol extract of Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) rhizomes (Zingiberaceae) in mice and rats. Phytother. Res.2006. 20(9), 764-772.
18.    Orrù A., Casu M.A., Tambaro S., Marchese, G., Casu G., Ruiu S., Withania Somnifera(L.) Dunal root extract alleviates formal in induced nociception in mice: involvement of the opioidergic system. Behav.Pharmacol.2016; 27(1), 57-68.
19.    Patgiri B., Umretia B.L., Vaishnav P.U., Prajapati P.K., Shukla V.J., Ravishankar B., Antiinflammatory activity of Guduchi Ghana (aqueous extract of  Inospora Cordifolia Miers.).Ayu.2014; 35(1), 108–110.
20.    Rasoanaivo P., Wright C.W., Willcox M.L., Gilbert B., Whole plant extracts versus single compounds for the treatment of malaria: synergy and positive interactions.Malar.J.2011;10(Suppl.1), S4.
21.    Ricciotti E., Fitz Gerald G.A., Prosta glandins and inflammation. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.2011; 31, 986-1000.
22.    Sakat S.S., Mani  K., Demidchenko Y.O., Gorbunov E.A., Tarasov S.A., Mathur A., Epstein O.I., Release active Dilutions of diclofenac enhance  anti-inflammatory effect of Diclofenac in carrageenan induced rat paw edema model. Inflammation 2014; 37, 1–9.
23.    Sanchez-Munoz F. Dominguez-Lopez, A., Yamamoto Furusho, J.K., Role of cytokine inflammatory Bowel disease. World J. Gastroenterol 2008;1, (27), 4280–4288.
24.    Schett, G., Elewaut, D., McInnes I.B., Dayer J.M., Neurath, M.F., How cytokine networks fuel inflammation: toward a cytokine based disease taxonomy. Nat. Med. 2013; 19, 822-824. 10.1038/nm.3260.
25.    Shibata M., Ohkubo T., Takahashi H., Inoki R., Modified formalin test: characteristic biphasic pain response. Pain,1989; 38, 347–352.
26.    Shishodia S., Harikumar K.B., Dass S., Ramawat K.G., Aggarwal B.B., The guggul for chronic diseases: ancient medicine, modern targets. Anticancer Res. 2008; 28(6A), 3647–3664.
27.    Srivastava P., Mohanti S., Bawankule D.U., Khan F., Shanker K., Effect of Pluchea lanceolata Bioactives in LPS induced neuro-inflammation in C6 rat glial cells. Naunyn. Schmiede. Arch. Pharmacol. 2014; 387, 119–127.
28.    Tanaka T., Narazaki M., Kishimoto T., Il6 in inflammation, Immunity and disease. Cold Spring Harb. Perspect. Biol. 2014;6.
29.    The Unani Pharmacopoeia of a, Ministry for Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India, 2007. Firsted.
30.    The Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India Ministry for Health and Family Welfare, Govt. of India, 2008. 171.
31.    Tiwari N., Gupta V.K., Pandey P., Patel D.K., Banerjee S., Darokar M.P., Pal A. Adjuvant effect of Asparagus racemosus Willd. Derived saponins in antibody production, allergic response and pro inflammatory cytokine modulation Biomed. Pharmacother.  2017; 86, 555-561.
32.    Torri E., Lemos M., Caliari V., Kassuya C.A.L., Bastos J.K., Andrade Antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties of blueberry extract (Vaccinium corymbosum). J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2007; 59, 591–596.
33.    Trikamji, J. (Ed.), Charaka Samhita of Agnivesha, Chikitsa Sthana; Abhaya Amalaki Rasayana Pada, 1st ed. Chowkhambha Prakashan, Varanasi, 2007; (Chap.1, Verse, 41-57).pp.378–379.T
34.    Winter C.A., Risley E.A., Nuss G.W., Carrageenan induced oedema in hind paw of rat as assay for anti-inflammatory drugs. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.1962; 111, 544–547.
35.    Wright H.L., Moots R.J., Edwards S.W., The multifactorial role of neutrophils in rheumatoid arthritis. Nat. Rev. Rheumatol.2014; 10, 593-601.
36.    Yang G., Lee K., Lee M., Ham I., Choi H.Y., Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide induced nitrioxide and prostaglandin E2 production by chloroform fraction of Cudrania tricuspidate in RAW 264.7 macrophages. BMC Complement. Altern. Med.2012; 10(12), 250.
37.    Zelová H., Hošek J., NFα signalling and inflammation: interactions Between old acqua intances. Inflamm. Res. 2013. 10.1007/s00011-013-0633-0.
38.    Zhishen J., Mengcheng T., Jianming W., The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem.1999; 64, 555-559.
39.    Zhou X., Seto S.W., Chang D., Kiat H., Razmovski Naumovski V., Chan K., Bensoussan A. Synergistic effects of Chinese herbal medicine:  a comprehensive review of methodology and current research. Front. Pharmacol. 2016; 7, 201.
40.    Di. Rosa, M. Giroud J.P., Willoughby D.A., Studies of the mediators of the acute inflammatory response induced in rats in different sites by carrageenan and turpentine. J. Pathol. 1971.104, 15–29.
41.    South S.M., Smith M.T., Apparent insensitivity of the hot plate latency test for detection of antinociception following intraperitoneal, intravenous or intracerebroventricular M6G administration to rats. J. Pharmacol. Exp.Ther.1998; 286, 1326–1332.
42.    Golshani S., Karamkhani F., Monsef Esfehani, H.R., Abdollahi, M., Antinociceptive effects of the essential oil of Dracocephalum kotschyi in the mouse writhing test. J. Pharm. Pharm. Sci.2004;7,76–79.
43.    Chichorro J.G., Lorenzetti B.B., Zampronio A.R., Involvement of bradykinin, cytokines, sympathetic amines and prostaglandins in formalin induced orofacial nociception in rats. Br. J. Pharmacol. 2004.
44.    Hunskaar S., Hole K. The formalin test in mice: dissociation between inflammatory and non-inflammatory pain. Pain 1987; 30, 103–114.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available