Evy Ratnasari Ekawati, Windarmanto, Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih
Evy Ratnasari Ekawati1, Windarmanto2, Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih2
1Universitas Maarif Hasyim Latif, Sidoarjo, Indonesia.
2Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
Volume - 15,
Issue - 7,
Year - 2022
Aim: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of flavonoids in MeOH: DMSO (1:1, v/v) extract lime peel against MRSA. Material and Methods: This study used MeOH: DMSO (1:1, v/v) extract from lime peel in concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100ppm as treatment, penicillin-G as positive control, and DMSO 10% as negative control. This study consisted of five stages, ie. lime plant determination, lime fruit collection, lime peel preparation, extraction, antibacterial potential prediction of flavonoid compounds in extract, in vitro potential antibacterial tests. In in vitro test, each treatment was repeated 3 times and the data obtained were statistically tested using one-way ANOVA. Results: Prediction of the potential of 12 flavonoid compound in lime peel carried out through PASS SERVER showed as many as eight compounds based on prediction in computation that have antibacterial activity with a Probability activity value =0.6 and the other four compounds have antibacterial activity with a Probability activity =0.6. In vitro test data using one-way ANOVA showed significant differences between variations in concentration (p<0.05). Duncan test showed that the concentration of 100ppm resulted in a significant difference from the concentrations of 50ppm, 25ppm, 12.5 ppm and 6.25ppm, while the concentrations of 6.25ppm, 12.5ppm and 25ppm showed no significant difference. MeOH: DMSO (1:1, v/v) extract of lime peel in concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, and 50ppm resulted in inhibition zone diameter area belonging to resistant category, while at a concentration of 100ppm the inhibition zone diameter area belonged to weak category Conclusion: The MeOH: DMSO (1:1, v/v) extract of lime peel has bacteriostatic potential.
Cite this article:
Evy Ratnasari Ekawati, Windarmanto, Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih. Study of Lime Peel Flavonoid as effectively Antibacterial against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(7):3002-8. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00501
Evy Ratnasari Ekawati, Windarmanto, Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih. Study of Lime Peel Flavonoid as effectively Antibacterial against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(7):3002-8. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00501 Available on: https://www.rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-7-23
1. G. J. Tortora, B. R. Funke, and C. L. Case, Microbiology: An Introduction, 12th ed. USA: Pearson Education Inc., 2016.
2. W. Sayogo, A. D. W. Widodo, and Y. prajitna Dachlan, “Potential of +Dalethyne to Epitelization of Wounds on Rats Infected by MRSA Bacteria,” J. Biosains Pascasarj., vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2017, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.20473/jbp.v19i1.2017.68-84.
3. S. V Pattewar and D. N. Patil, “Formulation of Herbal Antibacterial Cream by Using Extract from Kalanchoe pinnata Leaves,” Res. J. Top. Cosmet. Sci, vol. 5, no. June, pp. 1–4, 2014.
4. K. Istasaputri, E. Sutedja, O. Suwarsa, and S. Sudigdoadi, “Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Atopic Dermatitis Patients and Its Sensitivity to Mupirocin Compared to Gentamycin,” Maj. Kedokt. Bandung, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 35–43, 2013.
5. M. Lobanovska and G. Pilla, “Penicillin’s Discovery and Antibiotic Resistenace: Lessons for the Future?,” Yale J. Biol. Med., vol. 90, pp. 135–145, 2017, [Online]. Available: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5369031/.
6. C. Arjyal, J. Kc, and S. Neupane, “Prevalence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Shrines,” Int. J. Microbiol., vol. 2020, 2020, doi: 10.1155/2020/7981648.
7. P. D. Stapleton and P. W. Taylor, “Methicillin Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus: Mechanisms and Modulatiom,” Pet-to-Man Travel. Staphylococci A World Prog., vol. 85, no. Pt 1, pp. 57–72, 2002, doi: 10.3184/003685002783238870.
8. M. P. Jevons, “‘Celbenin’-resistant Staphylococci,” Br. Med. J., vol. 1, no. 5219, pp. 124–125, 1961, doi: 10.1136/bmj.1.5219.124-a.
9. M. Mariyappan, R. Bharathidasan, R. Mahalingam, P. Madhanraj, A. Panneerselvam, and V. Ambikapathy, “Antibacterial Activity of Cardiospermum halicacabum and Melothria heterophylla,” Asian J. Pharm. Res., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 111–113, 2011.
10. J. E. Bandow et al., “Proteomic Approach to Understanding Antibiotic Action Proteomic Approach to Understanding Antibiotic Action,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 948–955, 2003, doi: 10.1128/AAC.47.3.948.
11. N. Rao and S. Mittal, “An in vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Activity of Curcuma longa against Selected Pathogenic Microorganisms,” Res. J. Sci. Tech, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 71–74, 2014, [Online]. Available: www.anvpublication.org.
12. R. Punasiya and S. Pillai, “In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Leaf Extracts of Hibiscus syriacus (L),” Res. J. Top. Cosmet. Sci., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 51–55, 2014.
13. P. M. Tumane, V. G. Meshram, and D. D. Wasnik, “Comparative study of Antibacterial Activity of Peel Extracts of Citrus aurantium L. (Bitter Orange) and Citrus medica L. (Lemon) Against Clinical Isolates from Wound Infection,” Int. J. Pharma Bio Sci., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 382–387, 2014.
14. P. Tiwari and R. K. Patel, “Estimation of Total Phenolics and Flavonoids and Antioxidnt Potential of Ashwagandharishta Prepared by Traditional and Modern Methods,” Asian J. Pharm. Res., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1147–152, 2013.
15. M. N. Manvar, “Antibacterial Activity of Leaves and Flowers of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (Convolvulacea) ,” Asian J. Pharm. Res., vol. 8, no. 2, p. 94, 2018, doi: 10.5958/2231-5691.2018.00016.3.
16. P. Muthukumaran, P. Padmapriya, S. Salomi, R. Umamaheswari, P. Kalaiarasan, and C. Malarvizhi, “In Vitro Anti Microbial Activity of Leaf Powder,” Asian J. Pharm. Res., vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 108–110, 2011.
17. S. Paul and D. Saha, “Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Barleria prionitis Leaf Extracts against Bacteria,” Asian J. Pharm. Res., vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 107–110, 2012.
18. M. S. Kumar, S. Balachandran, and S. Chaudhury, “Influence of Incubation Temperatures on Total Phenolic, Flavonoids Content and Free Radical Scavenging Activity of Callus from Heliotropium indicum L,” Asian J. Pharm. Res., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 148–152, 2012, [Online]. Available: www.asianpharmaonline.org.
19. P. Muthukumaran, P. Shanmuganathan, and C. Malathi, “In Vitro Antioxidant Evaluation of Mimosa pudica,” Asian J. Pharm. Res., vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 44–46, 2011.
20. R. S. Kalkotwar and R. B. Saudagar, “Design, Synthesis and anti microbial, anti-inflammatory, Antitubercular activities of some 2, 4, 5-trisubstituted imidazole derivatives.,” Asian J. Pharm. Res., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 159–165, 2013.
21. S. Madhuri, A. Hegde, N. Srilakshmini, and P. Kekuda, “Antimicrobial Activity of Citrus sinensis and Citrus Aurantium Peel Extracts,” J. Pharm. Sci. Innov., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 366–368, 2014, doi: 10.7897/2277-4572.034174.
22. M. Adnan, A. Umer, I. Ahmad, K. Hayat, and S. N. Shakeel, “In Vitro Evaluation of Biological Activities of Citrus Leaf Extracts,” Sains Malaysiana, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 185–194, 2014.
23. K. Hemalatha, J. Selvin, and K. Girija, “Synthesis, In silico Molecular Docking Study and Anti-bacterial Evaluation of some Novel 4-Anilino Quinazolines,” Asian J. Pharm. Res., vol. 8, no. 3, p. 125, 2018, doi: 10.5958/2231-5691.2018.00022.9.
24. G. Ballistreri, S. Fabroni, F. V. Romeo, N. Timpanaro, M. Amenta, and P. Rapisarda, Anthocyanins and Other Polyphenols in Citrus Genus: Biosynthesis, Chemical Profile, and Biological Activity, 2nd ed. Italy: Elsevier Inc., 2019.
25. Y. Nogata, K. Sakamoto, H. Shiratsuchi, T. Ishi, M. Yano, and H. Ohta, “Flavonoid Composition of Fruit Tissues of Citrus Species,” Biscience Biotechnol. Biochem., vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 178–192, 2006, doi: 10.1271/bbb.70.178.
26. S. Purwati, S. V. T. Lumora, and Samsurianto, “Phytochemical Screening of Salira (Lantana camara L) Leaves as Pest Supressant Vegetable Pesticide and Diseaase Incidence in Horticultural Plants in East Kalimantan,” Pros. Semin. Nas. Kim. 2017, pp. 153–158, 2017.
27. CLSI, “Test Cultures (zone diameters in mm) Antimicrobial Agent,” 2013. [Online]. Available: http://www.oxoid.com/pdf/uk/2013-CLSIFDA-table-update.pdf.
28. Afrina, S. Chismirina, and R. Y. Magistra, “Konsentrasi Hambat Dan Bunuh Minimum Ekstrak Daun Jeruk Nipis (Citrus aurantifolia) Terhadap Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans Secara In Vitro,” Cakradonya Dent. J., vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 68–76, 2016.
29. E. R. Ekawati, M. S. Pradana, and W. Darmanto, “Lime (Citrus aurantifolia) peel as natural antibacteria for wound skin infection caused by staphylococcus aureus,” Int. J. Pharm. Res., vol. 11, no. 1, 2019, doi: 10.31838/ijpr/2019.11.01.042.
30. N. Rao, S. Mittal, Sunhanshu, and E. Menghani, “Assessment of Phytochemical Screening, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Potential of the Methanolic Extract of Ricinus communis l,” Asian J. Pharm. Res., vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 20–25, 2013.
31. T. Jeyanthi, P. Subramanian, and P. Kumaravel, “A comparative analysis of antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera root extract with commercial antibiotics.,” Asian J. Pharm. Res., vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 98–102, 2013, [Online]. Available: file:///C:/Users/HP/AppData/Local/Mendeley Ltd./Mendeley Desktop/Downloaded/Jeyanthi, Subramanian, Kumaravel - 2013 - A comparative analysis of antibacterial activity of Withania somnifera root extract with comme.pdf.
32. S. Rej, M. Duta, S. Jamal, S. Das, and S. Chatterjee, “Study of Phytochemical Constituents and Antibacterial Activity of Clerodendrum infortunatum,” Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci., vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 187–195, 2014.
33. S. S. Prastiwi and F. Ferdiansyah, “Farmaka Farmaka,” vol. 15, pp. 1–8, 2013.
34. C. Sabarinath, P. Sudhakar, and C. Shanmuganath, “Phytochemical and Antibacterial Screening on Leaves of Solanum torvum,” Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci., vol. 8, no. 3, p. 130, 2018, doi: 10.5958/2231-5659.2018.00022.x.
35. V. Ragupahi, A. Stephen, D. Arivoli, and S. Kumaresan, “Pass-Assisted Prediction of Biological Activity Spectra of Methanolic Extract of Gymnopilus junonius, A Wild Mushroom from Southern Western Ghats, India,” Eur. J. Pharm. Med. Res., vol. 5, no. April, pp. 340–347, 2018.
36. T. P. T. Cushnie and A. J. Lamb, “Recent advances in understanding the antibacterial properties of flavonoids,” Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 99–107, 2011, doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2011.02.014.
37. A. S. Roccaro, A. R. Blanco, F. Giuliano, D. Rusciano, and V. Enea, “Epigallocatechin-gallate enhances the activity of tetracycline in staphylococci by inhibiting its efflux from bacterial cells,” Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., vol. 48, no. 6, pp. 1968–1973, 2004, doi: 10.1128/AAC.48.6.1968-1973.2004.
38. G. Eumkeb, S. Siriwong, S. Phitaktim, N. Rojtinnakorn, and S. Sakdarat, “Synergistic activity and mode of action of flavonoids isolated from smaller galangal and amoxicillin combinations against amoxicillin-resistant Escherichia coli,” J. Appl. Microbiol., vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 55–64, 2012, doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2011.05190.x.
39. W. Fast and L. D. Sutton, “Metallo-β-lactamase: Inhibitors and reporter substrates,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta - Proteins Proteomics, vol. 1834, no. 8, pp. 1648–1659, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.bbapap.2013.04.024.
40. Y. Kambar, M. Asha, Chaitra, and P. Kekuda, “Antibacterial Activity of Leaf and Lower Extract of Quisqualis indica Linn. Againts Clinical Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus,” Res. J. Sci. Technol., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2014.
41. K. A. Kiruthika, A. Jaisheeba, and R. Sornaraj, “Evaluation of Antibacterial Activity of Some Selected Angiosperm Flower Extract,” Int. J. ChemTech Res., vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 1945–1951, 2011.
42. F. Aziz, F. B. Lestari, S. Nuraidah, E. Purwati, and S. I. O. Salasia, “Deteksi Gen Penyandi Sifat Resistensi Metisilin, Penisilin dan Tetrasiklin pada Isolat Staphylococcus aureus Asal Susu Mastitis Subklinis Sapi Perah,” J. Sain Vet., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 60–69, 2016, [Online]. Available: https://jurnal.ugm.ac.id/jsv/article/download/22816/15137.
43. D. W. Kemalaputri, S. N. Jannah, and A. Budiharjo, “Detection OF MRSA (Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus) In Hospital Patients Using MALDI-TOF MS Method and Multiplex PCR,” J. Biol., vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 51–61, 2017.
44. J. N. Otieno, K. M. M. Hosea, H. V. Lyaruu, and R. L. A. Mahunnah, “Multi-plant or single-plant extracts, which is the most effective for local healing in Tanzania?,” African J. Tradit. Complement. Altern. Med., vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 165–172, 2008, doi: 10.4314/ajtcam.v5i2.31269.
45. D. Pratama, A. Suprihadi, and B. Raharjo, “Efektivitas Kombinasi Ekstrak Bahan Herbal (Mengkudu, Pepaya, Kunyit) Terhadap Daya Hambat Pertumbuhan Aeromonas hydrophila Secara in Vitro,” J. Biol., vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 7–16, 2017.
46. S. D. Patil, M. A. Hafizur, A. Priti, P. Shelke, and S. Yardi, “Synthesis and evaluation of novel thiazolidinedione derivatives for antibacterial activity,” Asian J. Pharm. Res., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 27–30, 2016, doi: 10.7897/2230-8407.07544.
47. R. Ali, K. Al-Achkar, A. Al-Mariri, and M. Safi, “Role of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in the detection of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus,” Egypt. J. Med. Hum. Genet., vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 293–298, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.ejmhg.2014.05.003.
48. R. Kumar, B. R. Yadav, and R. S. Singh, “Genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus aureus isolates from milk of mastitic crossbred cattle,” Curr. Microbiol., vol. 60, no. 5, pp. 379–386, 2010, doi: 10.1007/s00284-009-9553-1.