Khoirul Ngibad, Dheasy Herawati, Siti Delta Aisyah, Lailatul Jannah Triarini, Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama
Email ID Not Available
Khoirul Ngibad1,2*, Dheasy Herawati1, Siti Delta Aisyah1, Lailatul Jannah Triarini1, Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama2
1Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, Universitas Maarif Hasyim Latif, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia.
2Institute of Research and Community Service, Universitas Maarif Hasyim Latif, Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia.
3Department of Pharmacy, Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya, Palangkaraya, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Volume - 16,
Issue - 3,
Year - 2023
The utilization of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims) is still focused on the fruit, while the passion fruit peel is still not widely applied. The passion fruit peel has the potential as an antioxidant. The polarity of solvents used in the extraction process can affect the antioxidant activity of a medicinal plant. This study aims to determine in vitro antioxidant activity using DPPH and total flavonoid and phenol content of methanol and n-hexane extract from purple passion fruit peel. The powder of purple passion fruit peel was extracted using the maceration method with methanol and n-hexane solvent and a ratio of 1:12. The total flavonoids and phenols from each extract were determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The in vitro antioxidant activity was performed using the 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method by determining inhibitory concentration (IC50) values. The results showed that methanol and n-hexane extract yields were 4.53% and 0.76%, respectively. Furthermore, the total phenolic content of 35.95mg GA E/g extract in purple passion fruit peel was higher than the total flavonoid content of 3.25mg QE/g extract. There was an absence of total flavonoids and total phenols in n-hexane extracts. The antioxidant activity assay using the DPPH method based on IC50 values showed that methanol extract (14.63mg/L) had better antioxidant activity than n-hexane extract (37.39mg/L). In conclusion, the results suggest that methanol and n-hexane extract from Passiflora edulis f. edulis Sims can decrease free radicals and could be used as a natural antioxidant.
Cite this article:
Khoirul Ngibad, Dheasy Herawati, Siti Delta Aisyah, Lailatul Jannah Triarini, Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama. Total Flavonoid, Total Phenolic contents and Antioxidant activity of Methanol and n-hexane extract from purple passion fruit peel. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(3):1247-3. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00206
Khoirul Ngibad, Dheasy Herawati, Siti Delta Aisyah, Lailatul Jannah Triarini, Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama. Total Flavonoid, Total Phenolic contents and Antioxidant activity of Methanol and n-hexane extract from purple passion fruit peel. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(3):1247-3. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00206 Available on: https://www.rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2023-16-3-42
1. Nazliniwaty N. Harun FR. Putra EDL et al. Antiaging activity of gel preparation containing three varieties of passion fruit peel ethanolic extract. Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2020; 8: 170–174. doi.org/10.3889/oamjms.2020.3462
2. Wong YS. Sia CM. Khoo HE et al. Influence of extraction conditions on antioxidant properties of passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) peel. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Technologia Alimentaria. 2014; 13(3):257-65. doi.org/10.17306/j.afs.2014.3.4
3. Chutia H. Mahanta CL. Green ultrasound and microwave extraction of carotenoids from passion fruit peel using vegetable oils as a solvent: Optimization, comparison, kinetics, and thermodynamic studies. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies. 2021; 67: 102547. doi.org/10.1016/j.ifset.2020.102547
4. López-Vargas JH. Fernández-López J. Pérez-Álvarez JA et al. Chemical, physico-chemical, technological, antibacterial and antioxidant properties of dietary fiber powder obtained from yellow passion fruit (Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa) co-products. Food Research International. 2013; 51: 756–763. doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.01.055
5. Musika S. Pokratok N. Pliankratoke J et al. Antioxidant, antityrosinase and antibacterial activities of fruit peel extracts. International Journal of Agricultural Technology. 2021; 17: 1447–1460.
6. Kandandapani S. Balaraman AK. Ahamed HN. Extracts of passion fruit peel and seed of Passiflora edulis (Passifloraceae) attenuate oxidative stress in diabetic rats. Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines; 2015; 13(9): 0680-0686. doi.org/10.1016/s1875-5364(15)30066-2
7. Cazarin CBB. A ARN. Algieri F et al. Intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of Passiflora edulis peel in the dextran sodium sulphate model of mouse colitis. Journal of Functional Foods. 2016; 26: 565-576. doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2016.08.020
8. Ramli ANM. Manap NWA. Bhuyar P et al. Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis) peel powder extract and its application towards antibacterial and antioxidant activity on the preserved meat products. SN Applied Sciences. 2020; 2: 1–11. doi.org/10.1007/s42452-020-03550-z
9. Tian L. Zhang S. Yi J et al. Factors impacting the antioxidant/prooxidant activity of tea polyphenols on lipids and proteins in oil-in-water emulsions. LWT. 2022; 156: 113024. doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2021.113024
10. Ben Ahmed Z. Hefied F. Yousfi M et al. Study of the antioxidant activity of Pistacia atlantica Desf. Gall extracts and evaluation of the responsible compounds. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2022; 100: 104358. doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2021.104358
11. Zeouk I. Sifaoui I. Ben Jalloul A et al. Isolation, identification, and activity evaluation of antioxidant components from Inula viscosa: a bioguided approach. Bioorganic Chemistry. 2021; 119: 105551. doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105551
12. Adouni K. Bendif H. Zouaoui O et al. Antioxidant activity of extracts obtained by high-pressure extraction procedures from Asparagus stipularis Forssk. South African Journal of Botany. 2022; 146: 789–793. doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2021.12.027
13. Seyrekoglu F. Temiz H. Eser F et al. Comparison of the antioxidant activities and major constituents of three Hypericum species (H. perforatum, H. scabrum and H. origanifolium) from Turkey. South African Journal of Botany. 2022; 146: 723–727. doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2021.12.012
14. Sawczuk R. Karpinska J. Filipowska D et al. Evaluation of total phenols content, anti-DPPH activity and the content of selected antioxidants in the honeybee drone brood homogenate. Food Chemistry. 2022; 368:130745. doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130745
15. Xiong F. Li X. Zheng L et al. Characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Passiflora edulis Sims peel under different degradation methods. Carbohydrate Polymers. 2019; 218: 46–52. doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2019.04.069
16. Liu Y. Liu HY. Xia Y et al. Screening and process optimization of ultrasound-assisted extraction of main antioxidants from sweet tea (Lithocarpus litseifolius [Hance] Chun). Food Bioscience. 2021; 43: 101277. doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2021.101277
17. Chuah HQ. Tang PL. Ang NJ et al. Submerged fermentation improves bioactivity of mulberry fruits and leaves. Chinese Herbal Medicines. 2021; 13(4): 565–72. doi.org/10.1016/j.chmed.2021.09.003
18. Nurcholis W. Sya’bani Putri DN. Husnawati H et al. Total flavonoid content and antioxidant activity of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts from accessions of Amomum compactum fruits. Annals of Agricultural Sciences. 2021; 66: 58–62. doi.org/10.1016/j.aoas.2021.04.001
19. Qiu L. Zhang M. Mujumdar AS et al. Convenient use of near-infrared spectroscopy to indirectly predict the antioxidant activitiy of edible rose (Rose chinensis Jacq “Crimsin Glory” H.T.) petals during infrared drying. Food Chemistry. 2022; 369: 130951. doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.130951
20. Kim H. Woo YS. Choi HS. et al. Dioleylphosphatidylcholine increases the antioxidant properties of ascorbyl palmitate in bulk oils compared to other hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. Food Chem 2021; 349: 129082.
21. Brahma D. Dutta D. Antioxidant property of beta-cryptoxanthin produced by Kocuria marina DAGII. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2022; Epub ahead of print. doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2022.01.027
22. Okafor JNC. Rautenbauch F. Meyer M et al. Phenolic content, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects of fractions of Vigna subterraenea (L.) verdc from Mpumalanga, South Africa. Heliyon. 2021; 7: e08397. doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e08397
23. Wairata J. Fadlan A. Setyo Purnomo A et al. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant, antidiabetic and antiplasmodial activities of Garcinia forbesii King: A correlation study. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2022; 15: 103541. doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2021.103541
24. Abbou F. Azzi R. Ouffai K et al. Phenolic profile, antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory properties of phenolic-rich fractions from the aerial parts of Mentha pulegium L. South African Journal of Botany. 2022; 146: 196–204. doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2021.10.024
25. Castañeda-Valbuena D Ayora-Talavera T Luján-Hidalgo C et al. Ultrasound extraction conditions effect on antioxidant capacity of mango by-product extracts. Food and Bioproducts Processing. 2021; 127: 212–224. doi.org/10.1016/j.fbp.2021.03.002
26. Wang P. Zhong L. Yang H et al. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activities between dried and fresh walnut kernels by metabolomic approaches. LWT. 2022; 155: 112875. doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2021.112875
27. Musika S. Pokratok N. Pliankratoke J et al. Antioxidant, antityrosinase and antibacterial activities of fruit peel extracts. International Journal of Agricultural Technology. 2021; 17 (4): 1447–1460.
28. Nawaz H. Shad MA. Rehman N et al. Effect of solvent polarity on extraction yield and antioxidant properties of phytochemicals from bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) seeds. Brazilian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2020; 56: 1–9. doi.org/10.1590/s2175-97902019000417129
29. Jakubczyk K. Tuchowska A. Janda-Milczarek K. Plant hydrolates – Antioxidant properties, chemical composition and potential applications. Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy. 2021; 142: 112033. doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.112033
30. Jalloul A ben. Chaar H. Tounsi MS et al. Variations in phenolic composition and antioxidant activities of Scabiosa maritima (Scabiosa atropurpurea sub. maritima L.) crude extracts and fractions according to growth stage and plant part. South African Journal of Botany. 2022; 146: 703–714. doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2021.12.004
31. Benabderrahim MA. Yahia Y. Bettaieb I et al. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of a collection of medicinal plants from Tunisian arid and Saharan regions. Industrial Crops and Products. 2019; 138: 111427. doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.05.076
32. Wang Y. Jin H. Dong X et al. Quality evaluation of Lycium barbarum (wolfberry) from different regions in China based on polysaccharide structure, yield and bioactivities. Chinese Medicine. 2019; 14: 1–10. doi.org/10.1186/s13020-019-0273-6
33. Dirar AI. Alsaadi DHM. Wada M, et al. Effects of extraction solvents on total phenolic and flavonoid contents and biological activities of extracts from Sudanese medicinal plants. South African Journal of Botany. 2019; 120: 261–267. doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2018.07.003
34. Phong HX. Viet NT. Quyen NTN et al. Phytochemical screening, total phenolic, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activities of four spices commonly used in Vietnamese traditional medicine. Materials Today: Proceedings. Epub ahead of print 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2021.12.142
35. Chen XQ. Li ZH. Liu LL. et al. Green extraction using deep eutectic solvents and antioxidant activities of flavonoids from two fruits of Rubia species. LWT. 2021; 148: 111708. doi.org/10.1016/j.lwt.2021.111708
36. Baky MH. Kamal AM. Haggag EG et al. Flavonoids from Manilkara hexandra and antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology. 2022; 100: 104375. doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2021.104375
37. Avanti C. Yuniarta TA. Azminah A et al. Antioxidant activity of different parts of Nauclea subdita. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research. 2021; 5: 1365–1370. doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v5i8.7
38. Sharma S. Chaudhary R. Rolta R et al. Effect of solvent on yield, phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant potential of Rhododendron arboreum. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14: 311–316. doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00057.3
39. MahadevaRao US. Mohd KS. Halim SZBA et al. Screening of phytochemicals and comparative antioxidant activity of leaf and fruit of Malaysian Mengkudu using aqueous and organic solvent extracts. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2013; 6: 1064–1072.
40. Yunitrianti. Elya B. Noviani A. Determination of the antioxidant activity of prasman leaf extracts (Ayapana triplinervis [VAHL]) and the total flavonoid and phenol contents of the most active extracts. International Journal of Applied Pharmaceutics. 2020; 12: 107–111. doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2020.v12s1.FF021
41. Uzunuigbe EO. Osunsanmi FO. Masamba P, et al. Phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of crude extracts from Acacia Senegal leaf extracts. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2019; 11: 1409–1414. doi.org/10.5530/pj.2019.11.218
42. Dubey R. Rajhans S. Mankad AU. Preliminary phytochemical screening, quantitative estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid content of Jatropha gossypiifolia (L.). Research Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry. 2020; 12: 83. doi.org/10.5958/0975-4385.2020.00015.1
43. Alizadeh Z. Fattahi M. Essential oil, total phenolic, flavonoids, anthocyanins, carotenoids and antioxidant activity of cultivated Damask Rose (Rosa damascena) from Iran: With chemotyping approach concerning morphology and composition. Scientia Horticulturae. 2021; 288: 110341. doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2021.110341
44. Saddiqe Z. Naeem I. Hellio C et al. Phytochemical profile, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of four hypericum species from the UK. South African Journal of Botany. 2020; 133: 45–53. doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2020.05.018
45. Bargougui A. Tag HM. Bouaziz M et al. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, total phenols and flavonoids content of four cactus (Opuntiaficus-indica) cultivars. Biomedical and Pharmacology Journal. 2019; 12: 1353–1368. doi.org/10.13005/bpj/1764
46. Melakhessou MA. Benkiki N. Marref SE. Determination of antioxidant capacity, flavonoids and total phenolic content of extracts from Atractylis flava desf. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technolog. 2018; 11: 5221–5226. doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00952.6
47. Momin MAM. Rashid MM. Urmi KF et al. Phytochemical screening and investigation of antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential of different extracts of selected medicinal plants of Bangladesh. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2013; 6: 1042–1050.
48. Masum NHM. Hamid K. Zulfiker AHM et al. In vitro antioxidant activities of different parts of the plant Moringa oleifera Lam. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2012; 5: 1532–1537.
49. Lydia J. Sudarsanam D. Total phenol and total tannin content of Cyperus rotundus L. and its medicinal significance. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2012; 5: 1500–1502.
50. Zeroual S. Daoud I. Gaouaoui R et al. In vitro and molecular docking studies of DPPH with Phoenix dactylifera L. (Deglet-Nour) crude fruits extracts and evaluation of their antioxidant activity. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2020; 13: 52. doi.org/10.5958/0974-4150.2020.00012.7
51. Abriyani E. Fikayuniar L. Screening phytochemical, antioxidant activity and vitamin c assay from bungo perak-perak ( Begonia versicolar irmsch) leaves. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2020; 10: 183. doi.org/10.5958/2231-5691.2020.00032.5
52. Dileep N. Rakesh KN. Junaid S et al. In vitro antioxidant activity of ripe pericarp of Polyalthia longifolia Thw. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2012; 5: 1312–1315.
53. Guemari F. Laouini SE. Rebiai A et al. Phytochemical screening and identification of polyphenols, evaluation of antioxidant activity and study of biological properties of extract Silybum marianum (L.). Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry. 2020; 13: 190. doi.org/10.5958/0974-4150.2020.00037.1
54. Madhvi SK. Sharma M. Iqbal J et al. Phytochemical analysis, total flavonoid, phenolic contents and antioxidant activity of extracts from the leaves of Rhododendron arboreum. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13: 1701. doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00307.8
55. Saptarini NM. Rahayu D. Herawati IE. Antioxidant activity of crude bromelain of pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr) crown from Subang District, Indonesia. Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences. 2019; 11: S551–S555. doi.org/10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_200_19.
56. Patle TK. Shrivas K. Kurrey R et al. Phytochemical screening and determination of phenolics and flavonoids in Dillenia pentagyna using UV–vis and FTIR spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy. 2020; 242: 118717. doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2020.118717
57. Rahmadi A. Sabarina Y. Agustin S. Different drying temperatures modulate chemical and antioxidant properties of mandai cempedak (Artocarpus integer). F1000Research 2020; 7: 1–11. doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.16617.2
58. Murtihapsari. Parubak AS. Mangallo B et al. Isolation and presence of antimalarial activities of marine sponge Xestospongia sp. Indonesian Journal of Chemistry. 2013; 13: 199–204. doi.org/10.22146/ijc.21276
59. Mssillou I. Agour A. Lyoussi B et al. Chemical Constituents, In Vitro antibacterial properties and antioxidant activity of essential oils from Marrubium vulgare L. leaves. Tropical Journal of Natural Product Research. 2021; 5: 661–667. doi.org/10.26538/tjnpr/v5i4.12
60. Bingol Z. Kızıltaş H. Gören AC et al. Antidiabetic, anticholinergic and antioxidant activities of aerial parts of shaggy bindweed (Convulvulus betonicifolia Miller subsp.) – profiling of phenolic compounds by LC-HRMS. Heliyon; 7. Epub ahead of print 2021. doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06986.
61. Singh S. Dhande SR. Aggarwal SM et al. In vitro antioxidant activity of 70% methanolic extracts of roots of Hemidesmus indicus. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2012; 5: 1241–1245.
62. Zhao H. Zhu M. Wang K et al. Identification and quantitation of bioactive components from honeycomb (nidus vespae). Food Chemistry. 2020; 314: 126052. doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.126052
63. Urmi KF. Chowdhury MAU. Diba F et al. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of different extracts from the leaves of Aegle marmelos L. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2013; 6: 384–387.
64. Elufioye TO. Olusola DM. Oyedeji AO. Correlation of total phenolic, flavonoid and tannin content of Bryophyllum pinnatum (Lam.) (crassulaceae) extract with the antioxidant and anticholinesterase activities. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2019; 11: 1003–1009. doi.org/10.5530/pj.2019.11.158
65. Bhardwaj P. Thakur MS. Kapoor S et al. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity study of methanol extract of stems and roots of Codonopsis clematidea from Trans-himalayan Region. Pharmacognosy Journal. 2019; 11: 536–546. doi.org/10.5530/pj.2019.11.86
66. Gahlot K. Lal VK. Jha S. Total phenolic content, flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant activities of Flemingia species (Flemingia chappar, Flemingia macrophylla and Flemingia strobilifera). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2013; 6: 516–523.
67. George A. Manjusha. Jacob KM et al. Phytochemical composition and antioxidant activities of various stem extracts of Bacopa monnieri Linn. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2013; 6: 1074–1080.
68. Suganya P. Nandhini R. Jeyadoss T et al. In vitro antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of shorea robusta in hepatocytes. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2014; 6: 227–230.
69. Soni H. Nayak G. Mishra K et al. Evaluation of phyto pharmaceutical and antioxidant potential of methanolic extract of peel of Punica granatum. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2010; 3: 1170–1174.