Author(s): Tukiran Tukiran, Ahmad Rudi Setiawan, Suyatno Sutoyo, Fauzia Indah Sabila

Email(s): tukiran@unesa.ac.id

DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00195   

Address: Tukiran Tukiran*, Ahmad Rudi Setiawan, Suyatno Sutoyo, Fauzia Indah Sabila
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, Universitas Negeri Surabaya, Surabaya, Indonesia.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 17,      Issue - 3,     Year - 2024


ABSTRACT:
Sappan wood and red ginger rhizome have been utilized as herbal medicine due to their anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, analgesic, and immunomodulatory activities. Previous study revealed that sappan wood and red ginger rhizome showed good anti-inflammatory activity. However, the studies are focused on single extract. There are no research about combining the sappan wood extract and red ginger rhizome extract for antiinflammatory agent. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the anti-inflammatory activity of the combination of sappan wood and red ginger rhizome ethanol extracts for antiinflammatory properties using red blood cell (RBC) membrane stabilization test. The tested samples consisted of sappan wood ethanol extract, red ginger rhizome ethanol extract, combination formulas (F1, F2, and F3), and positive control (diclofenac sodium). F1 comprises a 1:1 mixture of ethanol extract of sappan wood and red ginger rhizome, while F2 and F3 are composed of 2:1 and 1:2, respectively. The IC50 values for sappan wood ethanol extract, red ginger rhizome ethanol extract, and formulas F1, F2, and F3 were 47.63, 181.26, 101.93, 94.98, and 104.98 ppm, respectively. Statistical analysis using the one-way Anova followed by the Games-Howell post-hoc test revealed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the IC50 of each sample. For single extracts, sappan wood is better as an anti-inflammatory. Meanwhile, in the formulations, Formula F2 is superior as an anti-inflammatory agent


Cite this article:
Tukiran Tukiran, Ahmad Rudi Setiawan, Suyatno Sutoyo, Fauzia Indah Sabila. In-vitro Anti-inflammatory Activity for Combination of Ethanol Extract from Sappan Wood (Caesalpinia sappan L.) and Red Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roxb.). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(3):1250-5. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00195

Cite(Electronic):
Tukiran Tukiran, Ahmad Rudi Setiawan, Suyatno Sutoyo, Fauzia Indah Sabila. In-vitro Anti-inflammatory Activity for Combination of Ethanol Extract from Sappan Wood (Caesalpinia sappan L.) and Red Ginger Rhizome (Zingiber officinale Roxb.). Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(3):1250-5. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00195   Available on: https://www.rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2024-17-3-46


REFERENCES:
1.    Su S, Hua Y, Wang Y, Gu W, Zhou W, Duan JA, et al. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of individual and combined extracts from Commiphora myrrha, and Boswellia carterii. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 139(2):649–56. doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2011.12.013.
2.    Abdulkhaleq LA, Assi MA, Abdullah R, Zamri-Saad M, Taufiq-Yap YH, Hezmee MNM. The crucial roles of inflammatory mediators in inflammation: A review. Vet World. 2018; 11(5):627–35.
3.    Anosike CA, Obidoa O, Ezeanyika LU. Membrane stabilization as a mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum). DARU, J Pharm Sci. 2012; 20(1):1.
4.    Benly. Role of Histamine in Acute Inflammation. J Pharm Sci Res. 2015; 7(6):373–6.
5.    Y MI, Saehu MS, Bina P, Kendari H. Efek Antiinflamasi Fraksi Dari Ekstrak Etanol Batang Galing ( Cayratia trifolia L . Domin ) Secara In Vitro. J Farm Sains dan Prakt. 2021; 7(3):289–97.
6.    Ghosh R, Alajbegovic A, Gomes A V. NSAIDs and cardiovascular diseases: Role of reactive oxygen species. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2015; 2015(Table 1).
7.    Kowalski ML, Makowska JS. Seven steps to the diagnosis of NSAIDs hypersensitivity: How to apply a new classification in real practice? Allergy, Asthma Immunol Res. 2015; 7(4):312–20.
8.    McDowell K, Clements JN. How can NSAIDs harm cardiovascular and renal function? J Am Acad Physician Assist. 2014; 27(4):12–5.
9.    Nirmal NP, Panichayupakaranant P. Antioxidant, antibacterial, and anti-inflammatory activities of standardized brazilin-rich Caesalpinia sappan extract. Pharm Biol. 2015; 53(9):1339–43.
10.    Meiyanto E, Lestari B, Sugiyanto RN, Jenie RI, Utomo RY, Sasmito E, et al. Caesalpinia sappan L. heartwood ethanolic extract exerts genotoxic inhibitory and cytotoxic effects. Orient Pharm Exp Med. 2019; 19(1):27–36. doi: 10.1007/s13596-018-0351-9
11.    Nirmal NP, Prasad RGS V, Keokitichai S. Wound healing activity of standardized brazilin rich extract from Caesalpinia sappan heartwood. J Chem Pharm Res. 2014; 6(10):195–201.
12.    Mueller M, Weinmann D, Toegel S, Holzer W, Unger FM, Viernstein H. Compounds from Caesalpinia sappan with anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages and chondrocytes. Food Funct. 2016; 7(3):1671–9.
13.    Mekala K, Radha R. A review on sappan wood-a therapeutic dye yielding tree. Res J Pharmacogn Phytochem. 2015; 7(4):227.
14.    Jung EG, Han K Il, Hwang SG, Kwon HJ, Patnaik BB, Kim YH, et al. Brazilin isolated from Caesalpinia sappan L. inhibits rheumatoid arthritis activity in a type-II collagen induced arthritis mouse model. BMC Complement Altern Med. 2015; 15(1):1–11. doi: 10.1186/s12906-015-0648-x
15.    Saptarini NM, Deswati DA. Analgesic and antipyretic activities of ethanolic extract of sappan wood (Caesalpinia sappan l.) leaves. Res J Pharm Technol. 2021; 14(10):5213–6.
16.    Zhang S, Kou X, Zhao H, Mak KK, Balijepalli MK, Pichika MR. Zingiber officinale var. rubrum: Red Ginger’s medicinal uses. Molecules. 2022; 27(3).
17.    Maleki SJ, Crespo JF, Cabanillas B. Anti-inflammatory effects of flavonoids. Food Chem. 2019; 299(July):125124. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.125124
18.    Vakkalagadda RK, Lankalapalli S. In vitro Anti-cancer, Anti-inflammatory and Anti-arthritic activity of Ethanolic extract of Ochna obtusata leaves. Res J Pharm Technol. 2022; 15(9):3999–4004.
19.    Shinde UA, Phadke AS, Nair AM, Mungantiwar AA, Dikshit VJ, Saraf MN. Membrane stabilizing activity - A possible mechanism of action for the anti-inflammatory activity of Cedrus deodara wood oil. Fitoterapia. 1999; 70(3):251–7.
20.    Oyedapo O, Akinpelu BA, Akinwunmi KF, Adeyinka MO, Sipeolu FO. Red blood cell membrane stabilizing potentials of extracts of Lantana camara and its fractions. Int J Plant Physiol Biochem. 2010; 2(October):46–51.
21.    Nagaharika Y, kalyani V, Rasheed S, Ramadosskarthikeyan. Anti-inflammatory activity of leaves of Jatropha gossypifolia L. by hrbc membrane stabilization method. J Acute Dis. 2013; 2(2):156–8. doi: 10.1016/s2221-6189(13)60118-3
22.    Menon DB, Latha K. Phytochemical screening and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of the stem of Coleus forskohlii. Pharmacogn J. 2011; 3(23):75–9. doi: 10.5530/pj.2011.23.11
23.    Vijayraja D, Jeyaprakash K. Preliminary phytochemical analysis, in vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of Turbinaria ornata (Turner) J. Agardh. Res J Pharm Technol. 2017; 10(7):2243–8.
24.    Puspitasari AD, Proyogo LS. Perbandingan Metode Ekstraksi Maserasi Dan Sokletasi Terhadap Kadar Fenolik Total Ekstrak Etanol Daun Kersen (Muntingia calabura). J Ilm Cendekia Eksakta. 2017; 1(2):1–8.
25.    Hakim AR, Saputri R. Narrative review: Optimasi etanol sebagai pelarut senyawa flavonoid dan fenolik. J Surya Med. 2020; 6(1):177–80.
26.    Francis P, Suseem SR. Phytochemical analysis and anti-inflammatory screening of Strychnos colubrina Linn. Res J Pharm Technol. 2016; 9(2):165–9.
27.    Kaźmierczak T, Bonarska-Kujawa D, Męczarska K, Cyboran-Mikołajczyk S, Oszmiański J, Kapusta R. Analysis of the Polyphenolic Composition of Vaccinium L . Extracts and Their Protective Effect on Red Blood Cell Membranes. Membranes (Basel). 2023; 13(6):589.
28.    Wu H, Bak KH, Goran G V., Tatiyaborworntham N. Inhibitory mechanisms of polyphenols on heme protein-mediated lipid oxidation in muscle food: New insights and advances. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2022; 0(0):1–19. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2022.2146654
29.    Berrouet C, Dorilas N, Rejniak KA, Tuncer N. Comparison of drug inhibitory effects (IC 50) in monolayer and spheroid cultures. Bull Math Biol. 2020; 82(6).
30.    Maryam S. Kadar antioksidan dan IC50 tempe kacang merah (Phaseulus vulgaris L) yang difermentasi dengan lama fermentasi berbeda. Pros Semin Nas Fmipa Undiksha V. 2015;347–52.
31.    Hashmi Z, Sarkar D, Mishra S, Mehra V. An in-vitro assessment of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-hyperglycemic activities of traditional edible plants - Murraya koenigii, Mentha spicata, and Coriandrum sativum. J Biomed Ther Sci. 2022; 9(1):1–10.
32.    Amalia RT, Tukiran, Sabila FI, Suyatno. Phytochemical Screening and Total Phenolic Compounds of Red Ginger (Zingiber officinale) and Secang Wood (Caesalpinia sappan) As Preliminary Test of Antiarthritis. Chim Nat Acta. 2021; 9(1):14–9.
33.    Putri DK, Tukiran, Suyatno, Sabila FI. Antioxidant Activity from The Combination Ethanol Extract Secang Wood ( Caesalpinia sappan L .) And Red Ginger Rhizome ( Zingiber officinale Roxb .). Int Jt Conf Sci Eng 2021 (IJCSE 2021). 2021; 209(Ijcse):143–7.
34.    Mueller M, Weinmann D, Toegel S, Holzer W, Unger FM, Viernstein H. Compounds from Caesalpinia sappan with anti-inflammatory properties in macrophages and chondrocytes. Food Funct. 2016; 7(3):1671–9.
35.    Min BS, Cuong TD, Hung TM, Min BK, Shin BS, Woo MH. Compounds from the heartwood of Caesalpinia sappan and their anti-inflammatory activity. Bioorganic Med Chem Lett. 2012; 22(24):7436–9. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2012.10.055
36.    Sravani D, Aarathi K, Sampath Kumar NS, Krupanidhi S, Vijaya Ramu D, Venkateswarlu TC. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Mangifera indica and Manilkara zapota leaf extract. Res J Pharm Technol. 2015; 8(11):1477–80.
37.    Manvar MN, Desai TR. In-vitro Anti-inflammatory and Anti-Arthritic Activities of Fruits of Vernonia anthelmintica Willd. (Asteraceae). Asian J Pharm Res. 2014; 4(4):186–8.
38.    Anbarasi A, Vidhya R.  Evaluation of In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Tephrosia purpurea (Seed). Asian J Pharm Res. 2015; 5(2):83.
39.    Thawkar B, Kale M, Oswal M, Maniyar K, Kadam K, Kamat S. To study anti-inflammatory activity of 70% methanolic extract of Triumfetta rhomboidea: In vitro study. Res J Pharm Technol. 2016; 9(3):241–4.
40.    Siswanty PW, Wibowo MA, Harlia. Aktivitas Toksisitas Antioksidan Dan Antiinflamasi Secara In Vitro Dari Ekstrak Metanol Daun Mangga Bacang (Mangifera foetida L). J Untan. 2017; 6(1):42–9.
41.    Teja K, Satyanarayana T, Saraswathi B, Goutham B, Mamatha K, Samyuktha P, et al.  Phytochemical and In vitro Anti-inflammatory Activity on Abrus precatorius . Asian J Res Pharm Sci. 2019; 9(1):50.
42.    Paramita S, Ismail S, Marliana E, Moerad EB. Anti-inflammatory activities of curcuma aeruginosa with membrane stabilization and carrageenan-induced paw oedema test. EurAsian J Biosci. 2019; 13(2):2389–94.
43.    Abe H, Katada K, Orita M, Nishikibe M. Effects of Calcium Antagonists on the Erythrocyte Membrane. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1991; 43(1):22–6.
44.    Kumar A, Ghosh S, Vaishali. An experimental evaluation of Ageratum conyzoides on membrane stabilization and protein denaturation during acute inflammation and arthritis. Biomed Pharmacol J. 2011; 4(2):313–7.
45.    Ambriz-Pérez DL, Leyva-López N, Gutierrez-Grijalva EP, Heredia JB. Phenolic compounds: Natural alternative in inflammation treatment. A Review. 2. 2016; 2(1).

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

1.3
2021CiteScore
 
56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus


SCImago Journal & Country Rank


Recent Articles




Tags


Not Available