Author(s): Wissam Zam, Reine Dawod

Email(s): ,

DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00970.1   

Address: Wissam Zam*, Reine Dawod
Al-Andalus University for Medical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Analytical and Food Chemistry.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 13,      Issue - 11,     Year - 2020

Probiotics are living bacteria that provide health benefits to the host when consumed in sufficient quantity according to WHO. The most-studied species include Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Saccharomyces which may restore normal microbiota and effect the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract by a variety of mechanisms. Their efficacy, either as a single strain or a combination of probiotics, has been tested in IBD, IBS, colorectal cancer and diarrheas, among other disorders. Results of these studies are reviewed in this article, although several questions regarding use of probiotics in GI disorders remain to be answered in future studies. It should be noted that cautions are advised in immunologically vulnerable populations.

Cite this article:
Wissam Zam, Reine Dawod. Overview of the Probiotics’ role in Gastrointestinal disorders. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(11):5557-5561. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00970.1

Wissam Zam, Reine Dawod. Overview of the Probiotics’ role in Gastrointestinal disorders. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(11):5557-5561. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00970.1   Available on:

1.    Swathi KV. Probiotics –A Human Friendly Bacteria. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2016; 9(8): 1260-1262.
2.    Cremon C, Barbaro MR, Ventura M and Barbara G. Pre- and probiotic overview. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2018; 43: 87-92.
3.    Wilkins T, Sequoia J. Probiotics for Gastrointestinal Conditions: A Summary of the Evidence. Am Fam Physician 2017; 96:170.
4.    Lokhande S, More S and Raje V. A Systematic Study of Probiotics- An Update Review. Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 2018; 8 (3): 149-157.
5.    McFarland LV. Systematic review and meta-analysis of Saccharomyces boulardii in adult patients. World J Gastroenterol. 2010; 16: 2202-22.
6.    Ohland CL and Macnaughton WK. Probiotic bacteria and intestinal epithelial barrier function. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010; 298: G807-19.
7.    Ringel Y and Carroll IM. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota and functional bowel symptoms. Gastrointest Endosc Clin N Am. 2009; 19: 141-50.
8.    O’ Hara AM and Shanahan F. The gut flora as a forgotten organ. EMBO Rep. 2006; 7: 688-93.
9.    Quigley EMM. Probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome: The science and the evidence. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2015; 49(S-1).
10.    Hod K and Ringel Y. Probiotics in functional bowel disorders. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 2016; 30(1): 89-97.
11.    Guarner F, Khan AG, Garisch J et al. World Gastroenterology Practice Guideline. Probiotics and prebiotics. 2011.
12.    Shane AL, Cabana MD, Vidry S, Merenstein D, Hummelen R, Ellis CL, Heimbach JT, Hempel S, Lynch SV, Sanders ME and Tancredi DJ. Guide to designing, conducting, publishing and communicating results of clinical studies involving probiotic applications in human participants. Gut Microbes. 2010; 1: 243-53.
13.    Park H-R. Effect of Salivary Streptococci mutans and Lactobacilli levels after uptake of the Probiotic for Clinical Trial. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017; 10(9): 2984-2988.
14.    Sanders ME, Akkermans LM, Haller D, Hammerman C, Heimbach J, Hörmannsperger G, Huys G, Levy DD, Lutgendorff F, Mack D, Phothirath P, Solano-Aguilar G and Vaughan E. Safety assessment of probiotics for human use. Gut Microbes. 2010; 1: 164-85.
15.    Hanauer SB. Inflammatory bowel disease: Epidemiology, pathogenesis and therapeutic opportunities. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2016; 12: S3-9.
16.    Deshmukh R, Kumari S and Harwansh EK. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Snapshot of Current Knowledge. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(2): 956-962.
17.    Hendrickson BA, Gokhale R and Cho JH. Clinical aspects and pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002; 15: 79-94.
18.    Gerritsen J, Smidt H, Rijkers GT and de vos WM. Intestinal microbiota in human health and disease : the impact of probiotics. Genes Nutr. 2011; 6(3): 209-40.
19.    Reiff C and Kelly D. Inflammatory bowel disease, gut bacteria and probiotic therapy. Int J Med Microbial. 2010; 300(1): 25-33.
20.    Fedorak RN and Madsen KL. Probiotics and management of inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammatory Bowel Dis. 2004; 10(3): 286-99.
21.    Girardin M and Seidman EG. Indication for the use of probiotics in gastrointestinal disease. Dig Dis. 2011; 29(6): 574-87.
22.    Lovell RM and Ford AC. Global prevalence of and risk factors for irritable bowel syndrome: a meta-analysis. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012; 10(7): 712-721.
23.    Lacy B and Patel N. Rome criteria and a diagnostic approach to irritable bowel syndrome. J Clin Med. 2017; 6(11): 99.
24.    Harper A, Naghibi MM and Garcha D. The role of bacteria. Probiotics and diet in irritable bowel syndrome. Foods. 2018; 7(2): 13.
25.    Principi N, Cozzali R, Farinelli E, Brusaferro A and Esposito S. Gut dysbiosis and irritable bowel syndrome: the potential role of probiotics. J Infect. 2018; 76(2): 111-120.
26.    Lacy BE. Hot topics in primary care: role of the microbiome in disease: implications for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. J Fam Pract. 2017; 66(4): S40.
27.    Cremon C, Barbaro MR, Ventura M and Barbara G. Pre-and probiotic overview. Curr Opin. Pharmacol. 2018; 43: 87-92.
28.    Rousseaux C, Thuru X, Gelot A  Barnich N, Neut C, Dubuquoy L, Dubuquoy C, Merour E, Geboes K, Chamaillard M, Ouwehand A, Leyer G, Carcano D, Colombel JF, Ardid D and Desreumaux P. Lactobacillus acidophilus madulates intestinal pain and induces opioid and cannabinoid receptors. Nat.Med. 2007; 13: 35-37.
29.    Verdu EF, Bercik P, Verma-Gandhu M, Huang XX, Blennerhassett P, Jackson W, Mao Y, Wang L, Rochat F and Collins SM. Specific probiotic therapy attenuates antibiotic induced visceral hypersensitivity in mice. Gut. 2006; 55: 182-190.
30.    Madsen K, Cornish A, Soper P, Mckaigney C, Jijon H, Yachimec C, Doyle J, Jewell L and De Simone C. Probiotic bacteria enhance murine and human intestinal epithelial barrier function. Gastroenterology. 2001; 121: 580-591.
31.    Barbara G, Cremon C and Azpiroz F. Probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome: Where are we? Neurogastroenterol. Motil. 2018; 30: e13513.
32.    Zam W and Hassan B. Diet influence on colorectal cancer. Progress in nutrition. 2019; 21(2-S): 42-48.
33.    Mathew KS, Thomas A, Roshni PR, Sivadas A and Pavithran K. Clinical Evidence of Regorifenib in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Case Report. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(2): 513-515.
34.    Levin B, Lieberman DA, McFarland B, Smith RA, Brooks D, Andrews KS, Dash C, Giardiello FM, Glick S and Levin TR. Screening and surveillance for the early detection of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyps: A joint guideline from the American cancer society, the US multi-society task force on colorectal cancer and the American college of radiology. CA Cancer J. Clin. 2008; 58: 130-160.
35.    Eaden JA, Abrams KR and Mayberry JF. The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: A meta-analysis. Gut. 2001; 48: 526-535.
36.    Canavan C, Abrams KR and Mayberry J. Meta-analysis: Colorectal and small bowel cancer risk in patients with crohn's disease. Aliment. Pharamacol. Therap. 2006; 23: 1097-1104.
37.    Johns LE and Houlston RS. A systematic review and meta-analysis of familial colorectal cancer risk. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001; 96: 2992-3003.
38.    Robertson DJ. ABBC of colorectal cancer. Gastroenterology. 2012; 143: 868-869.
39.    Joy JM, Antony RJ and Rajagopal SS. Dietary Fiber Intake and Benefit of Colorectal Cancer. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2019; 9(3): 209-214.
40.    Jia W, Xie G and Jia W. Bile acid-microbiota crosstalk in gastrointestinal inflammation and carcinogenesis. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2018; 15(2): 111-128.  
41.    Bernstein H, Bernstein C, Payne CM, Dvorakova K and Garewal H. Bile acids as carcinogens in human gastrointestinal cancers. Mutat Res 2005; 589: 47-65.
42.    Goldin B and Gorbach SL. Alterations in fecal microflora enzymes related to diet, age, lactobacillus supplements and dimethylhydrazine. Cancer. 1977; 40: 2421-2426.
43.    Kim DHDH and Jin YHYH. Intestinal bacterial beta-glucuronidase activity of patients with colon cancer. Arch Pharm Res. 2001; 24: 564-567.
44.    Goldin BR, Swenson L, Dwyer J, Sexton M and Gorbach SL. Effect of diet and lactobacillus acidofillus supplements on human fecal bacterial enzymes. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1980; 64: 255-261.
45.    Zam W. Gut microbiota as a prospective therapeutic target for curcumin: a review of mutual influence. Journal of nutrition and metabolism. 2018; Article ID1367984: 11 pages.
46.    Dos Reis SA, da Conceicao LL, Siqueira NP,  Rosa DD, da Silva LL and Peluzio MD. Review of the mechanisms of probiotic actions in the prevention of colorectal cancer. Nutr Res. 2017; 37: 1-19.
47.    Le Leu RK, Hu Y, Brown IL, Woodman RJ and Young GP.. Synbiotic intervention of Bifidobacterium lactis and resistant starch protects against colorectal cancer development in rats. Carcinogenesis. 2010; 31: 246-251.
48.    Delcenserie V, Martel D, Lamoureux M, Amiot J, Boutin Y and Roy D.. Immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in the intestinal tract. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2008; 10: 37-54.
49.    Pitt JM, Vetizou M, Waldschmitt N, Kroemer G, Chamaillard M, Boneca IG and Zitvogel L. Fine-tuning cancer immunotherapy: optimizing the gut microbiome. Cancer Res. 2016; 76: 4602-4607.
50.    Poutahidis T, Kleinewietfeld M and Erdman SE. Gut microbiota and the paradox of cancer immunotherapy. Front Immunol. 2014; 5: 157.
51.    Wan MLY and EL-Nezami H. Targeting gut microbiota in hepatocellular carcinoma: probiotics as a novel therapy. Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr. 2018; 7: 11-20.
52.    Grandy G, Medina M, Soria, Terán CG and Araya M. Probiotics in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhea. A randomized, doubled, controlled trial using two different probiotic preparations in Bolivian children. BMC Infect Dis. 2010; 10: 253.
53.    Shahin N and Daood N. Study of spread the Campylobacter jejuni among children with Diarrhea. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019; 12(3): 1155-1157.
54.    Canani RB, Cirillo P, Terrin G, Cesarano L, Spagnuolo MI, De Vincenzo A, Albano F, Passariello A, De Marco G, Manguso F and Guarino A.. Probiotics for treatment of acute diarrhea in children: randomized clinical trial of five different preparations. BMJ. 2007; 335(7615): 340.
55.    Cucchiara S, Falconieri P, Di Nardo G,  Parcelii MA, Dito L and Grandinetti A. New therapeutic approach in the management of intestinal disease: probiotics in intestinal disease in pediatric age. Dig Liver Dis. 2002; 34(2): 44-47.
56.    Boirivant M and Strober W. The mechanism of action of probiotics. Curr Opin Gastroenterol. 2007; 23(6): 679-692.
57.    Billo AG, Memon MA, Khaskheli SA, Murtaza G, Iqbal K, Saeed Shekhani M and Siddiqi AQ. Role of a probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii) in management and prevention of diarrhea. World J Gastroenterol. 2006; 12(28): 4557-4560.
58.    Isolauri E. Probiotics for infectious diarrhea. Gut. 2003; 52(3): 436-437.
59.    Allen S, Martinez E, Gregorio G and Dans L. Probiotics foe treating acute infectious diarrhea . Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010; 11: CD003048.
60.    Grandy G, Medina M, Soria R, Teran C and Araya M. Probiotics in the treatment of acute rotavirus diarrhea. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial using two different probiotic preparations in Bolivian children BMC Infect Dis. 2010; 10: 253.
61.    Szymanski H, Pejcz J, Jawien M, Chmielarczyk A, Strus M and Heczko P. Treatment of acute infectious diarrhea in infants and children with a mixture of three Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains—a randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled trial. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2006; 23(2):247-53.
62.    Chen CC, Kong MS, Lai MW, Chao HC, Chang KW, Chen SY, Huang YC, Chiu CH, Li WC, Lin PY, Chen CJ and Li TY. Probiotics have clinical, microbiologic and immunologic efficacy in acute infectious diarrhea. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010; 29(2): 135-8.
63.    Salminen M, Tynkkynen S, Rautelin H, Poussa T, Saxelin M, Ristola M, Valtonen V and Järvinen A. The efficacy and safety of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on prolonged, noninfectious diarrhea in HIV Patients on antiretroviral therapy: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study. HIV Clin Trials. 2004; 5(4): 183-91.
64.    Trois L, Cardoso E and Miura E. Use of probiotics in HIV-infected children: a randomized double-blind controlled study. J Trop PEDIATR. 2008; 54(1): 19-24.
65.    Kerac M, Bunn J, Seal A, Thindwa M, Tomkins A, Sadler K, Bahwere P and Collins S. Probiotics and prebiotics for severe acute malnutrition (PRONUT study): a doubled-blind efficacy randomized controlled trial in Malawi. Lancet. 2009; 374(9684): 136-44.
66.    Shornikova A, Isolauri E, Burkanova L, Lukovnikova S and Vesikari T. A Trial in the Karelian Republic of oral rehydration and Lactobacillus GG for treatment of acute diarrhea. Acute Paediatr. 1997; 86(5): 460-5.
67.    Sepp E, Tamm E, Torm S, Lutsar I, Mikelsaar M and Salminen S. Impact of a Lactubacillus probiotic on the fecal microflora in children with Shigellosis. Microecol Ther. 1990; 23(1): 74-80.
68.    Sazawal S, Dhingra U, Hiremath G, Sarkar A, Dhingra P, Dutta A, et al. Prebiotic and probiotic fortified milk prevention of morbidities among children: community-based, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. PLoS One. 2019; 5(8): e12164.
69.    Castaneda C, Garcia E, Santa C, Fernandez M and Monterrey P. Effects of Saccharomyces boulardii in children with chronic diarrhea, especially cases due to giardiasis, Rev Mex Pueric Pediatr. 1995; 2: 12-16.
70.    Dinleyici E, Eren M, Dogan N, Reyhanioglu S, Yargic Z and Vandenplas T. Clinical efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii or metronidazole in symptomatic children with Blastocystis hominis infection. Parasitol Res. 2011; 108(3): 541-5.
71.    McFarland L. Meta-analysis of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic associated diarrhea and the treatment of Clostridium difficile disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006; 101(4): 812-22.
72.    Dendukuri N, Costa V, McGregor M and Brophy J. Probiotic therapy for the prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile disease. CMAJ. 2005; 173(2): 167-70.
73.    Pillai A and Nelson R. Probiotics for treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated colitis in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008; 1: CD004611.
74.    Miller K and Fraser T. What is the role of probiotics in the treatment of acute Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea? Cleve Clin J Med. 2009; 76(7): 391-2.
75.    Goldenberg J, Lytvyn L, Steurich J, Parkin P, Mahant S and Johnston B. Probiotics for the prevention of pediatric antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; 12: CD004827.
76.    Black F, Anderson P, Orskov J, Gaarlev K and Laulund S. Prophylactic efficacy of Lactobacili on traveller's diarrhea. Travel Med. 1989; 7: 333-5.
77.    Kollaritsch H, Kremsner P, Weidermann G and Scheiner O. Prevention of traveler's diarrhea: comparison of different non-antibiotic preparations. Travel Med Int. 1989; 6: 9-17.
78.    Platincx M, Legein J and Vandenplas Y. Fungemia with Saccharomyces boulardii in a 1-year-old girl with protracted diarrhea. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 1995; 21: 113-5.
79.    Kunz A, Noel J and Fairchol M. Two cases of Lactobacillus bacteremia during probiotic treatment of short gut syndrome. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2004; 38: 557-8.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available