Author(s): Nihal Abdalla Ibrahim, Nada M Saleh, Fatma Koprulu, Altaf H Abdulrahim


DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.01062.8   

Address: Nihal Abdalla Ibrahim, Nada M Saleh, Fatma Koprulu*, Altaf H Abdulrahim
College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Ajman University, United Arab Emirates.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 13,      Issue - 12,     Year - 2020

Aim: Evaluating the risk factors predisposing to Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) among female undergraduate university students. Method: A cross-sectional study was conducted at Ajman University, United Arab Emirates. A total of 200 female students 18-26 years old were recruited in the study. A structured questionnaire was designed then filled by the students; it considered their personal information, socio-demographic data, medication history and family history of medical diseases. It also described their dietary and lifestyle profiles. Weight, height, waist/ hip circumferences, blood pressure and random glucose were measured. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 24. Results: Study showed that 20% of the participants have BMI = 25 kg/m2and 12% of them have waist circumference >35 inches. Significant correlations were found between anxiety symptoms and both physical inactivity and excess eating, smoking and increased waist circumference. Also skipping breakfast was significantly correlated with weight gain, high blood pressure as well as high glucose levels. Family history of diseases was evidenced to be an important risk factor. Family history of diabetes was significantly correlated with increased plasma glucose levels, family history of heart attack and both hypertension and increased blood glucose levels. Conclusion: Results revealed that female students are prone to suffer from MetS, due to presence of multiple risk factors. It is imperative for individuals to be advised on what would help reduce their risks of developing MetS.

Cite this article:
Nihal Abdalla Ibrahim, Nada M Saleh, Fatma Koprulu, Altaf H Abdulrahim. Metabolic Syndrome associated Risk factors: Findings among female undergraduate university students. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(12):6093-6097. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.01062.8

Nihal Abdalla Ibrahim, Nada M Saleh, Fatma Koprulu, Altaf H Abdulrahim. Metabolic Syndrome associated Risk factors: Findings among female undergraduate university students. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(12):6093-6097. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2020.01062.8   Available on:

1.    Cornier MA, Dabelea D, Hernandez TL, Lindstrom RC, Steig AJ, Stob NR, Van Pelt RE, Wang H, Eckel RH. The metabolic syndrome. Endocrine Reviews. 2008; 29 (7):777-822.
2.    Vanmathi. S. M, Monitha Star. M, Jishala. M. I, Shanmuga Sundaram R. A Pathophysiological Approach of Macrovascular Complication in Diabetes Mellitus with Hypertension: A Systematic Review. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019: 12(2):901-906.
3.    Alberti KG, Zimmet P, Shaw J. Metabolic syndrome—a new world‐wide definition. A consensus statement from the international diabetes federation. Diabetic medicine. 2006;23(5):469-80.
4.    Mounika S, Savitha G. Association of periodontal diseases and metabolic syndrome. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2015;8(8):994-996.‏
5.    Carnethon MR, Loria CM, Hill JO, Sidney S, Savage PJ, Liu K. Risk factors for the metabolic syndrome: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, 1985–2001. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(11):2707-15.
6.    Malik M, Razig SA. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among the multiethnic population of the United Arab Emirates: a report of a national survey. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2008;6(3):177-86.
7.    Al-Rubeaan K, Bawazeer N, Al Farsi Y, Youssef AM, Al-Yahya AA, AlQumaidi H, Al-Malki BM, Naji KA, Al-Shehri K, Al Rumaih FI. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Saudi Arabia-a cross sectional study. BMC Endocrine Disorders. 2018;18(1):16.
8.    Al-Lawati JA, Mohammed AJ, Al-Hinai HQ, Jousilahti P. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among Omani adults. Diabetes Care. 2003;26(6):1781-5.
9.    Malik M, Razig SA. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome among the multiethnic population of the United Arab Emirates: a report of a national survey. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2008; 6(3):177-86.
10.    Al Zenki S, Al Omirah H, Al Hooti S, Al Hamad N, Jackson RT, Rao A, Al Jahmah N, Al Obaid IA, Al Ghanim J, Al Somaie M, Zaghloul S. High prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Kuwaiti adults—a wake-up call for public health intervention. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2012;9(5):1984-96.
11.    Haroun D, Mechli R, Sahuri R, AlKhatib S, Obeid O, El Mallah C, Wood L, AlSuwaidi K. Metabolic syndrome among adolescents in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, is attributable to the high prevalence of low HDL levels: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2018 Dec 1;18(1):1284.
12.    Zimmet P, Alberti KG, Kaufman F, Tajima N, Silink M, Arslanian S, Wong G, Bennett P, Shaw J, Caprio S, IDF Consensus Group. The metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents–an IDF consensus report. Pediatric Diabetes. 2007;8(5):299-306.
13.    Al Dhaheri AS, Mohamad MN, Jarrar AH, Ohuma EO, Ismail LC, Al Meqbaali FT, Souka U, Shah SM. A cross-sectional study of the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among young female Emirati Adults. PLoS One. 2016;11(7).
14.    Huang TT, Kempf AM, Strother ML, Li C, Lee RE, Harris KJ, Kaur H. Overweight and components of the metabolic syndrome in college students. Diabetes Care. 2004;27(12):3000-1.
15.    Dalleck LC, Kjelland EM. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolic syndrome risk factors in college-aged students. American Journal of Health Promotion. 2012 Sep; 27(1):37-42.
16.    Keown TL, Smith CB, Harris MS. Metabolic syndrome among college students. The Journal for Nurse Practitioners. 2009;5(10):754-9.
17.    Osei-Yeboah J, Owiredu WK, Norgbe GK, Yao Lokpo S, Gyamfi J, Alote Allotey E, Asumbasiya Aduko R, Noagbe M, Attah FA. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components among people with type 2 diabetes in the ho municipality, Ghana: a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Chronic Diseases. 2017;2017.
18.    Wong ND, Nelson JC, Granston T, Bertoni AG, Blumenthal RS, Carr JJ, Guerci A, Jacobs DR, Kronmal R, Liu K, Saad M. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and incidence and progression of coronary calcium: the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis study. JACC: Cardiovascular Imaging. 2012;5(4):358-66.
19.    Shin JA, Lee JH, Lim SY, Ha HS, Kwon HS, Park YM, Lee WC, Kang MI, Yim HW, Yoon KH, Son HY. Metabolic syndrome as a predictor of type 2 diabetes, and its clinical interpretations and usefulness. Journal of Diabetes Investigation. 2013;4(4):334-43.
20.    Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, Fruchart JC, James WP, Loria CM, Smith Jr SC. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the international diabetes federation task force on epidemiology and prevention; national heart, lung, and blood institute; American heart association; world heart federation; international atherosclerosis society; and international association for the study of obesity. Circulation. 2009; 120(16): 1640-5.
21.    Kengne AP, Limen SN, Sobngwi E, Djouogo CF, Nouedoui C. Metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes: comparative prevalence according to two sets of diagnostic criteria in sub-Saharan Africans. Diabetology and Metabolic Syndrome. 2012;4(1):22.
22.    Misra A, Pandey RM, Devi JR, Sharma R, Vikram NK, Khanna N. High prevalence of diabetes, obesity and dyslipidaemia in urban slum population in northern India. International Journal of Obesity. 2001; 25(11): 1722-9.
23.    Misra A, Khurana L. The metabolic syndrome in South Asians: epidemiology, determinants, and prevention. Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders. 2009;7(6):497-514.
24.    American Psychiatric Association, 2013. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. BMC Med, 17, pp.133-137.
25.    Ginsburg GS, Riddle MA, Davies M. Somatic symptoms in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2006;45(10):1179-87.
26.    Hallion LS, Steinman SA, Kusmierski SN. Difficulty concentrating in generalized anxiety disorder: An evaluation of incremental utility and relationship to worry. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2018;53: 39-45.
27.    Stoddard J, Stringaris A, Brotman MA, Montville D, Pine DS, Leibenluft E. Irritability in child and adolescent anxiety disorders. Depression and Anxiety. 2014;31(7):566-73.
28.    Epel E, Lapidus R, McEwen B, Brownell K. Stress may add bite to appetite in women: a laboratory study of stress-induced cortisol and eating behavior. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2001;26(1):37-49.
29.    Stubbs B, Koyanagi A, Hallgren M, Firth J, Richards J, Schuch F, Rosenbaum S, Mugisha J, Veronese N, Lahti J, Vancampfort D. Physical activity and anxiety: a perspective from the World Health Survey. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2017 Jan 15;208:545-52.
30.    Edwards MK, Loprinzi PD. Experimentally increasing sedentary behavior results in increased anxiety in an active young adult population. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2016; 204:166-73.
31.    Hye-Sook Choi, Moon-HeeKwon. Major Factors Associated with Physical Inactivity among Korean adults: the 6th Knhanes. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018: 11(2):730-734.
32.    Morris RW, Taylor AE, Fluharty ME, Bjørngaard JH, Åsvold BO, Gabrielsen ME, Campbell A, Marioni R, Kumari M, Korhonen T, Männistö S. Heavier smoking may lead to a relative increase in waist circumference: evidence for a causal relationship from a Mendelian randomisation meta-analysis. The CARTA Consortium. BMJ open. 2015;5(8):e008808.
33.    Wang JB, Patterson RE, Ang A, Emond JA, Shetty N, Arab L. Timing of energy intake during the day is associated with the risk of obesity in adults. Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics. 2014; 27:255-62.
34.    Mekary RA, Giovannucci E, Cahill L, Willett WC, van Dam RM, Hu FB. Eating patterns and type 2 diabetes risk in older women: breakfast consumption and eating frequency. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2013;98(2):436-43.
35.    Berkey CS, Rockett HR, Gillman MW, Field AE, Colditz GA. Longitudinal study of skipping breakfast and weight change in adolescents. International Journal of Obesity. 2003;27(10):1258-66.
36.    Huang CJ, Hu HT, Fan YC, Liao YM, Tsai PS. Associations of breakfast skipping with obesity and health-related quality of life: evidence from a national survey in Taiwan. International Journal of Obesity. 2010;34(4):720-5.
37.    Balaji V, V Vishnu Priya, R Gayathri. Awareness of risk factors for obesity among College students in Tamil Nadu: A Questionnaire based study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2017: 10(5): 1367-1369.‏
38.    VIDULA, N. Relationship of waist-hip ratio and body mass index (BMI) to the blood pressure of individuals in Chennai Population. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 2015:8(7):906-908.‏
39.    Akram Ashames, Nageeb Hassan, Kristen Alamir, Kamar Modalaleh, Alin Naser, Aya Khawatmi. Correlation between Neck Circumference, Waist Circumference, Body Mass Index, and Overweight/Obesity among Ajman University Students. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2019:12(5):2443-2452.
40.    Nuhad Mohammed Aldoori. Prevalence of Obesity among female Adolescents in Al-Hillah city: Future Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases. Research J. Pharm. and Tech.2017:10(7):2127-2131.
41.    Sumanpreet Kaur. A Descriptive Study to Assess the Prevalence of Cardiovascular risk factors among Adolescents in Selected Schools of Banga, District Shaheed Bhagat Singh Nagar, Punjab. Asian J. Nur. Edu. and Research. 2016:6 (3):361-370.
42.    Eckel, R. H., Grundy, S. M., Zimmet, P. Z. The metabolic syndrome. Lancet, 2005; 365(9468), 1415-1428.
43.    Do-Jin Kim, Jong-HyuckKim. Relationship between Cardiopulmonary function Metabolic Syndrome Indices. Research J. Pharm. and Tech, 2017:10(11): 3868-3872.
44.    Masuo K, Mikami H, Ogihara T, Tuck ML. Differences in insulin and sympathetic responses to glucose ingestion due to family history of hypertension. American Journal of Hypertension. 1996;9(8):739-45.
45.    Katulanda P, Ranasinghe P, Jayawardena R, Sheriff R, Matthews DR. The influence of family history of diabetes on disease prevalence and associated metabolic risk factors among Sri Lankan adults. Diabetic Medicine. 2015;32(3):314-23.
46.    Schillaci G, Pirro M, Vaudo G, Gemelli F, Marchesi S, Porcellati C, Mannarino E. Prognostic value of the metabolic syndrome in essential hypertension. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2004; 43(10): 1817-22.
47.    MahboobehSheykh, PouyaOstadrahimi, Mohamad Reza Havasian, Karim Rostami-Estabragh, Zohreh Mahmoodi. Evaluation of Gender Differences in the Prevalence of Coronary Risk Factors in Patients with Acute Intractable Syndrome Hospitalized in CCU of Amir-almomenin Hospital, Zabol. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2017:10(9): 2883-2886.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available