Author(s): Rufaida, Tarique Mahmood, Arshiya Shamim, Farogh Ahsan, Saba Parveen, Mohammad Shariq


DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00101.3   

Address: Rufaida, Tarique Mahmood, Arshiya Shamim, Farogh Ahsan, Saba Parveen, Mohammad Shariq
Faculty of Pharmacology, Integral University, Lucknow (U.P), India.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 1,     Year - 2021

Herbal medicine is the core nucleus of holistic medicine which is gaining rapid popularity all over the world and gradually incorporating and integrating its position in the mainstream health care systems. Herbal medicines include plant and their parts that contain active ingredients alone or in combination to increase the efficacy, prevention and treatment of the disease. Analogous to conventional medicines herbal medicines are employed for various illness like cold, inflammation, diabetes, malaria, tuberculosis, cancer and so on. Indian traditional medicines or medicinal plants are indispensable source of new drugs. Foeniculum vulgare also known as Fennel, a member of Apiaceae family is used for various health benefits such as, it helps to regulate blood pressure, reduce water retention, improve eyesight and helps in reducing acne, constipation, arthritis, cough, gingival wound etc. Solanum nigrum also known as Makoh, a member of Solanaceae family is used in diverse medical conditions such as used to treat fever and to alleviate pain, used in treating the mouth ulcers, good herbal remedy for asthma, is the main ingredient in various medicines prepared to treat various liver disorders, helps in treating UTI and has excellent hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory activity. Cichorium intybus also known as Kasni, a member of Asteracece family is used in inflammation, hepatomegaly, digestive ailments, malaria, gout, sedative. It is a remedy for high blood pressure, constipation, liver disorders, gallbladder disorders, skin inflammation, loss of appetite, heart failure and cancer. These drugs provide a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development and formulation of new drugs for future clinical uses.

Cite this article:
Rufaida, Tarique Mahmood, Arshiya Shamim, Farogh Ahsan, Saba Parveen, Mohammad Shariq. Foeniculum vulgare, Solanum nigrum and Cichorium intybus: A Collectanea of Pharmacological and Clinical uses. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(1):555-561. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00101.3

Rufaida, Tarique Mahmood, Arshiya Shamim, Farogh Ahsan, Saba Parveen, Mohammad Shariq. Foeniculum vulgare, Solanum nigrum and Cichorium intybus: A Collectanea of Pharmacological and Clinical uses. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2021; 14(1):555-561. doi: 10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00101.3   Available on:

1.    Sellami M et al. Herbal medicine for sports: a review. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2018; 15:14.
2.    Ekor Martins. The Growing Use of Herbal Medicines: Issues Relating to adverse Reactions and Challenges in Monitoring Safety. Frontiers in Pharmacology; 20134:177.
3.    Herbal Medicine Research. Ghana Medical Journal. 2013; 47(3).
4.    Vickers Andrew et al. Herbal Medicine. Western Journal of Medicine. 2001; 175(2):125-128.
5.    Bijauliya Kumar Rohit, Alok Shashi, Chanchal K D, Kumar Mayank. A Comprehensive Review on Standardization of Herbal Drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research. 2017; 8(9):3663-3677.
6.    MA Qasmi, Introduction to Unani Medicine. Available at: [cited on 2/8/2013]
7.    Sen Saikat et al. Revival, modernization and integration of Indian Traditional Herbal Medicine in clinical practice: Importance, challenges and future. Journal of Traditional and Contemporary Medicine. 2016; 7(2):234-244.
8.    Hongal Sudhir et al. Role of Unani System of Medicine in Management of Orofacial Disease: A Review. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Medicine. 2014; 8(10):ZE12-ZE15.
9.    Rahman ZS. Unani Medicine in India. Its origin and Fundamental concept. History of Science, Philosophy and Culture in Indian Civilization. 2011; 4(2):298-325
10.    Rahman S Z. Impact of Human Medicine on Environment- a new emerging problem. Popul ENVIS. 2006;
11.    Rahman ZSet al. Importance of Pharmacovigilance in Unani System of Medicine. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2008; 40(1):S17-S20.
12.    Rampratap et al. Evaluation of Unani Compound Formulations- Majoon-e-Sandal. International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research. 2010; 1(5):238-242.
13.    Akgül A, and Bayrak A. Comparative Volatile Oil Composition of Various Parts from Turkish Bitter Fennel Foeniculum vulgare var. vulgare. Food Chem. 1998; 30(4): 319-323.
14.    Badgujar SB et al. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. A review of its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary application and Toxicology. Biomed Res Int. 2014; 52(11):1487-1503.
15.    Khan M and Musharaf S. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Medicinal Herb. Med Plant Res. 2014; 4(6):46-54.
16.    Rather A Manzoor et al. Foeniculum vulgare: A comprehensive review of its traditional use, phytochemistry, pharmacology and safety. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2016; 9(2): S1574-S1583.
17.    Kokate K.C et al, Pharmacognosy, Nirali Prakashan. India 1991; 55 .
18.    PM Guarrera et al. Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005; 96(3): 429-44.
19.    M Kumar et al. An ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used by the locals in Kishtwar, Jammu and Kashmir, India. International Journal of Ethnobotanical Research. 2009; 13: 1240-56.
20.    S Jaric et al. Phyto therapy in medieval Siberian medicine according to the pharmacological manuscripts of the Chilandar Medical Codex (15-16th centuries). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011; 137(1): 601-19.
21.    RA Halberstein. Botanical medicines for diuresis: cross cultural comparisons. Studies in Natural Product Chemistry. 2012; 37: 1-41.
22.    A Ghorbani. Studies on pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the region of Turmen Sahra, North of Iran (part 1): general results. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2005; 102(1): 58-68.
23.    UP de Albuquerque et al. Medicinal plants of Caatinga (semi-arid) vegetation of NE Brazil: A quantitative approach. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007; 114(3): 325-54.
24.    Mahmood A et al. Indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants from Gujranwala district, Pakistan. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013; 148(2): 714-23.
25.    FB Lewu et al. Ethnomedicine in South Africa: The role of weedy species. African Journal of Biotechnology. 2009; 8(6): 929-934.
26.    MD Juarez- Vazquez et al. Ethnobotany of medicinal plants used in Xalpatlahuac, Guerrero, Mexico. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2013; 148(2):521-7.
27.    M Alzweiri et al. Ethnopharmacological survey of medicinal herbs in Jordan, The northern Badia region. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2011; 137(1): 27-35.
28.    G Benitez et al. Pharmaceutical ethnobotany in the western part of Granada province (South Spain): ethnopharmacological synthesis. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010; 129(1): 87-105.
29.    Goswami N, Sreemoyee Chatterjee. Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Foeniculum vulgare mill and Trachyspermum ammi seed extract. Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology. 2014; 2014(3): 582767.
30.    Mohammad RH et al. Antioxidant and anticarcinogenic effect of methanolic extract of volatile oil of fennel seeds. J Med Food. 2011; 14((9): 986-1001.
31.    Faudale M et al. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of wild, edible and medicinal fennel from different Mediterranean countries. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008; 56(6): 1912-20.
32.    Satyanarayana S et al. Antioxidant activity of the aqueous extract of spicy food additives—evaluation and comparison of ascorbic acid in -vitro systems. J Herb Pharmacother . 2004; 4(2):1-10.
33.    Parejo I et al. Comparison between the radical scavenging activity and antioxidant activity of six distilled and non-distilled Mediterranean hers and aromatic plants. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2002; 50(23): 6882-90.
34.    TA Misharina et al. Antioxidant properties of essential oil. Journal of Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology. 2009; 45(6):642-647.
35.    Tripathi P et al. Supplementation of antioxidants glutathione and α-lipoic acid and attenuates oxidative stress and Th2 response in allergic airway inflammation. Indian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. 2013; 27(1): 19-26.
36.    Aazza S et al. Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of some commercial essential oils and their major compounds. Molecules. 2011; 16: 7672-7690.
37.    Nickavar B et al. Screening of antioxidant properties of seven Umbelliferous fruits from Iran. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2009; 22(10:30-5.
38.    Bhatti S et al. Neuroprotective effects of Foeniculum vulgare seeds extract on lead induced neurotoxicity in mice brain. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2018; 41(4): :399-407.
39.    Birdane FM et al. Beneficial effects of Foeniculum vulgare against ethanol induced acute gastric mucosal injury in rats. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2007; 13(40):607-11.
40.    Mofleh AI. Fennel Foeniculum vulgare treatment protects the gastric mucosa of rats against chemically induced histopathological lesions. International Journal of Pharmacology. 2013; 9(3):182-189.
41.    Agarwal D et al. Hepatoprotective properties of fennel seed extract. MOJ Food Processing and Technology. 2018; 6(1).
42.    Hanefi Ozbek. The anti-inflammatory activity of Foeniculum vulgare L. essential oils and investigation of its median lethal dose in rats and mice. International Journal of Pharmacology. 2005; 1(4): 329-331.
43.    Hanefi Ozbek. Evaluation of median lethal dose and analgesic activity of Foeniculum vulgare miller essential oil. International Journal of Pharmacology. 2006; 2(2): 181-183.
44.    El Bardai S et al. Pharmacological evidence of hypotensive activity Foeniculum vulgare and Marrubium vulgare in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Clinical and Experimental Hypertension. 2004; 26(6); 465-74.
45.    Abdul Ghani S and R Amin. The vascular action of aqueous extracts of Foeniculum vulgare leaves. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1988; 24(2-3): 213-218.
46.    Tognolini M et al. Protective effect of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil and anethole in an experimental model of thrombosis. Pharmacological Research. 2007; 56(3): 254-260.
47.    Kaur GJ et al. Antimicrobial and phytochemical screening of Foeniculum vulgare, Anethum graveolens and Trachyspermum ammi. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2009; 9:30.
48.    Mota AS et al. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of the essential oils of Portuguese Foeniculum vulgare fruits. Natural Product Communication. 2015; 10(4): 673-676.
49.    Shahat SS et al. Comparative chemical analysis of the essential oil of wild and cultivated fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill). Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants. 2012; 15(2): 314-319.
50.    Lixandru BE et al. Antimicrobial activity of plant essential oils against bacterial and fungal species involved in food poisoning and food decay. Roumanian Archives of Microbiology and Immunology. 2010; 69(4): 24-230.
51.    Mahady GB et al. In vitro susceptibility of H. pylori to botanical extracts used traditionally for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. Phytotherapy Research. 2005; 19(11): 988-91.
52.    Camacho-Corona MR et al. Activity against drug resistant tuberculosis strains of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine to treat tuberculosis and other respiratory diseases. Phytotherapy Research. 2008; 22(1): 82-5.
53.    Cwikla C et al. Investigations into the antibacterial activities of Phyto therapeutics against H. pylori and C. jejuni. Phytotherapy Research. 2009; 24(5): 649-56.
54.    Nizar MM et al. Antihyperglycemic properties of Foeniculum vulgare extracts in streptozocin induced
55.    Alexandrovick I et al. The effect of fennel seed oil emulsion in infantile colic: a randomised, placebo-controlled study. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine. 2003; 9(4):58-61.
56.    Bokaie M et al. Oral fennel drop (Foeniculum vulgare) on primary dysmenorrhoea: Effectiveness of herbal drugs. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research. 2014; 19(2):216.
57.    V Modaress Nejad and M Asadipour. Comparison of the effectiveness of fennel and mefenamic acid on pain intensity in dysmenorrhoea. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2006; 12(3-4):423-7.
58.    Namarvar Jahromi B et al. Comparison of fennel and mefenamic acid for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhoea. International Journal of Gynaecology and amp; Obstetric. 2003; 80(2): 153-7.
59.    Omidvar S et al. effect of fennel on pain intensity in dysmenorrhoea: A placebo-controlled trial. PubMed. 2012; 33(2): 311-3.
60.    J Bae et al. Fennel and Fenugreek tea drinking suppresses subjective short-term appetite in overweight women. Clinical Nutritional Research. 2015; 4(3):168-74.
61.    A Parvin et al. Effect of fennel vaginal cream on sexual function in post-menopausal women: A double blind randomised controlled trial. Journal of Medicine and Life. 2018; 11(1): 24-28.
62.    Akha O et al. The effect of fennel gel 3% in decreasing hair thickness in idiopathic mild to moderate hirsutism, A randomized placebo controlled clinical trial. Caspian Journal of Internal Medicine. 2014; 5(1):26-9.
63.    Javidnia K et al. Antihirsutism activity of fennel extract: A double blind placebo-controlled study. Phytomedicine. 2003; 10(6-7): 455-458.
64.    Saleem Mohammad S.T et al. Solanum nigrum Linn-A Review. 2009; 3(6):342-345. http://www.
65.    Moshi et al. Brine shrimp toxicity of some plants used as a traditional medicine in Kagera region, north western Tanzania. Tanzania Journal of Health Research. 2010; 12(1):63-7.
66.    Leporatti and Ghedira. Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2009; 5(1): 31.
67.    Chifundera K et al. Livestock diseases and traditional medicine in the Bushi area, Kivu province, Democratic Republic of Congo. African Study Monographs. 1998; 19(1): 13-33.
68.    Sivaperumal R et al. Ethnopharmacological studies on the medicinal plants used by tribal inhabitants of Kottur Hills, Dharmapuri, Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2010; 5(2010): 57-64.
69.    Muthu C et al. Medicinal plants used by traditional healers in Kancheepuram district of Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine. 2006; 2: 43.
70.    Kala CP. Ethnomedicinal botany of the Apatani in the Eastern Himalayan region of India. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed. 2005; 1:11.
71.    Parveen et al. Traditional uses of medicinal plants among the rural communities among the rural communities of Charu district in the Thar Desert India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 113: 387-399.
72.    Sikdar M and Dutta U. Traditional phytochemistry among the Nath people of Assam. Ethno-Med. 2008; 2: 39-45.
73.    Campisi A et al. Antioxidant activities of Solanum nigrum L. leaf extracts determined in In Vitro cellular models. Foods. 2019; 8(2):63.
74.    Zaidi KS et al. Antioxidant potential of Solanum nigrum aqueous leaves extract in modulating restraint stress induced changes in rat’s liver. Journal of Pharmacy and BioAllied Sciences. 2019; 11(1): 60-68.
75.    Jainu M and CS Shyamala Devi. Antioxidant effect of methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum berries on aspirin induced gastric mucosal injury. Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry. 19(1): 57-61.
76.    Jainu M et al. Antiulcerogenic and ulcer healing effects of Solanum nigrum (L.) on experimental ulcer models: possible mechanism for the inhibition of acid formation. J Ethnopharmacol. 2006; 104(1-2): 156-63.
77.    Maddala R et al. Anti-gastritis and antiulcerogenic effects of Solanum nigrum in laboratory animals. International Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences. 2013; 2(6): 266-271.
78.    S Saravanan et al. Gastro protective and antioxidant activity of Solanum nigrum Linn against aspirin and cold restraint stress induced ulcerated rats. Research Journal of Immunology. 2011; 4(1): 1-11.
79.    Ravi V et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum Linn berries. International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products. 2009; 2(2): 33-36.
80.    Arunachalam Ganesan et al. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae). Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2009; 5(3): 151-156.
81.    Umamageswari MS et al. Antidiabetic activity of aqueous extract of Solanum nigrum Linn berries in alloxan induced diabetic wistar albino rats. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research. 2017; 11(7): FC16-FC19.
82.    Dasgupta N et al. Solanum nigrum leaf: Natural food against diabetes and its bioactive compounds. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants. 2016; 10(2): 181-193.
83.    Ahir KB et al. Effect of Solanum nigrum L. on blood glucose concentration and lipid profile in normal and STZ induced diabetic rats. Pharmacognosy Communication. 2013; 3(2): 06-11.
84.    Rajesh Krithika and Verma RJ. Solanum nigrum confers protection against carbon tetrachloride induced experimental hepatotoxicity by increasing hepatic protein synthesis and regulation of energy metabolism. Clinical Phytoscience. 2019; 5: 1.
85.    Mushtaq Aamir et al. Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Solanum nigrum against nimesulide intoxicated albino rats. European Journal of Zoological Research. 2013; 2(2): 19-25.
86.    Prameswari K et al. In Vitro antibacterial activity in the extracts of Solanum nigrum. Indian Streams Research Journal. 2012; 2(7): 2230-7850.
87.    Zubair M et al. Antimicrobial potential of various extract and fractions of leaves of Solanum nigrum. International Journal of Phytomedicine. 2011; 3(1): 63-67.
88.    Nasim ARM Othman. Solanum nigrum roots as an antibacterial agent. International Journal of ChemTech Research. 2017; 10(4): 436-441.
89.    Noel N Wannang et al. Anti-seizure activity of the aqueous leaf extract of Solanum nigrum linn (Solanaceae) in experimental animals. African Health Science. 2008; 8(2): 74-79.
90.    Parween A et al. Effect of Arq Mako and Sharbat Kasni in Waram Al Rahim (Pelvic inflammatory disease): An observational clinical trial. International Journal of Advance Research and Development. 2017; 2(9)
91.    Azhar Misbauddin, Effect of herbal unani formulation on Nephrotic syndrome: A case study. Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge. 2018; 17(4): 807-810.
92.    Street A. Renee et al. Cichorium intybus: Traditional uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. Evidence based Complementary and alternative medicine. 2013; (15):579313.
93.    Nwafor C Ifeoma et al. Chemical composition and nutritive benefits of chicory as an ideal complementary and or alternative livestock feed supplement. The Scientific World Journal. 2017; :7343928.
94.    Bischoff TA et al. Antimalarial activity of lactucin and lactucopicrin: sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Cichorium intybus. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004; 95 (2-3): 455-457.
95.    J. El Hilaly. Ethnobotanical studies of medicinal plants in Taounate province (Northern Morocco). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003; 86(2-3):149-58.
96.    ML Leporatti et al. Preliminary comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in the traditional medicine of Bulgaria and Italy. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2003; 87(2-3): 123-42.
97.    I Suntar et al. Comparative evaluation of traditional prescriptions Cichorium intybus L. for wound healing: stepwise isolation of an active compound by in-vivo bioassay and its mode of activity. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2012; 143(1):299-309.
98.    A Judzentiene and J Budiene. Volatile constituents from aerial parts and roots of Cichorium intybus L. (chicory) grown in Lithuania. Chemija. 2008; 19: 25-28.
99.    M Ahmad et al. Traditional herbal remedies used for the treatment of diabetes from district Attock (Pakistan). Pakistan Journal of Botany. 2009; 41(6):2777-2782.
100.    PN Pushparaj et al. Anti-diabetic effects Cichorium intybus in streptozotocin induced diabetes in rats. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007; 111(2): 430-4.
101.    Li GY et al. Hepatoprotective effect of Cichorium intybus L. a traditional Uighur medicine against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatic fibrosis in rats. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2014; 20(16): 4753-4760.
102.    Heibatollah S et al. Hepatoprotective effect of Cichorium intybus on carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage in rats. African Journal of Biochemistry Research. 2008; 2(6): 141-142.
103.    Nallamilli RB et al. Hepatoprotective activity of Cichorium intybus (Linn.) root extract against carbon tetrachloride induced hepatotoxicity in albino wistar rats. Drug Invention Today. 2013; 5(4).
104.    Naseem Nadeem et al. Effect of the aqueous and alcoholic extract of seeds of Cichorium intybus Linn (Kasni) in treatment of liver damaged by carbon tetrachloride. Journal of Rawalpindi Medical College. 2011; 13(2): 53-55.
105.    Rokhsana Rasooli et al. Hepatoprotective effect of Cichorium intybus against paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in broilers. Journal of World’s Poultry Research. 2018; 8(2): 25-30.
106.    Waseem Rizvi et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of roots of Cichorium intybus due to its inhibitory effect on various cytokines and antioxidant activity. Ancient Science of Life. 2014; 34(1): 44-49.
107.    Tauseef Shaikh et al. Antimicrobial screening of Cichorium intybus seed extracts. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. 2016; 9(2): S1569-S1573.
108.    Atanu Koner. Isolation of antimicrobial compounds from chicory root. International Journal of Research in Pure and Applied Microbiology. 2011; 1(2): 13-18
109.    Petrovick J et al. Antibacterial activity of Cichorium intybus. Fitotherapia. 2004; 75(7-8): 737-739.
110.    Verma Renu et al. In Vitro antibacterial activity of Cichorium intybus against some pathogenic bacteria. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 3(4): 767-775.
111.    Ahmad Wasim et al. Effect of Cichorium intybus Linn on gentamicin model of acute renal impairment in rats. Unani Medicus. 2013; 2(1): 40-48.
112.    Pushparaj PN et al. Anti-diabetic effect of Cichorium intybus in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2007; 111(2): 430-4.
113.    Williams AR et al. Anthelmintic activity of Cichorium intybus: In vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition. Parasitology. 2016; 143(6): 770-7.
114.    Heidarieh N and Zahra S. Analysing the effect of hydro alcoholic extract of Cichorium intybus L. on seizures, experimentally induced by pentylenetetrazole in small male lab mice. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 2015; 5(4): 11-18.
115.    Nayeemunnisa and Rani MK. Cardioprotective effect of Cichorium intybus in ageing myocardium of albino rats. Current Science. 2003; 84(7): 941-943.
116.    Schumacher E et al. Thrombosis preventive potential of chicory coffee consumption: a clinical study. Phytotherapy Research. 2011; 25(5): 744-8.
117.    Nancy JO et al. Phase 1, placebo controlled, dose escalation trials of chicory root extract in patients with osteoarthritis of the hip or knee. BMC Mucoskeletal Disorders. 2010; 11(1): 156.
118.    Verma Renu et al. In Vitro antibacterial activity of Cichorium intybus against some pathogenic bacteria. British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2013; 3(4): 767-775.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available