Author(s): Sarah T. Omran, Noor Kadhim Mohammed-Jawad, Noor Yousif Fareed


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01150   

Address: Sarah T. Omran1, Noor Kadhim Mohammed-Jawad2, Noor Yousif Fareed3
1Assistant Lecturer in Pharmacology Department, College of Pharmacy, University of Basrah, Iraq.
2Assistant Lecturer in Clinical Pharmacy Department, College of Pharmacy, University of Basrah, Iraq.
3Assistant Lecturer in Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, University of Basrah, Basrah, Iraq.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 12,     Year - 2021

Background: antibiotic abuse and resistance is worrisome issues worldwide especially in Iraq due to irrational use and self-medication use. This study aimed to assess the degree of Knowledge and practices of populations in Basra, southern of Iraq about their proper use of antibiotics. Method: community based cross-sectional study. Well-designed questionnaire was electronically distributed via social media. The data collected from April 2020 to May 2020 and analyzed statistically by using SPSS program. Results: About 1075 participants responded to the questionnaire. About 70.28 % of participants, who use antibiotic in last two months before the study, took them directly from the pharmacies without prescriptions. Only half of the participants (51.53 %) depend on healthcare professionals as information sources regarding antibiotics use. The Majority of responders have appropriate knowledge relating to identifications of antibiotic among other types of medication. However, only 44.8 % identified the target organism that antibiotics used. Similarly, a very large percentage of participants (68 %) have the wrong idea about the effectiveness of antibiotics by thinking that injectable antibiotics are more effective than oral. On the other hand, high knowledge is regarding side effects of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance. Despite the apparently good knowledge, there was a generally wrong practice. Most participants are using antibiotics once they feel with flu and common cold symptoms 42.3 % stop the antibiotic once they feel better. Regarding antibiotic resistance, there was a general understanding of the role they would play to decrease these problems and were ready to participate effectively (69.2 %). Finally, the correlation was found to be positive and its value was equal to 0.425. This indicates that knowledge accounts for 42.5% of participants practice regarding antibiotics Conclusion: there is generally appropriate knowledge about antibiotic, however there is widespread wrong practices in antibiotic administration and uses. Therefore, immediate attention is required from health care organization in Iraq to prevent antibiotic administration without prescription also there is a need for more awareness campaigns to reduce antibiotic misuse and antibiotic resistance.

Cite this article:
Sarah T. Omran, Noor Kadhim Mohammed-Jawad, Noor Yousif Fareed. Population Knowledge about Rational use of Antibiotics and Antibiotics Resistance in Basrah, Iraq. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(12):6659-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01150

Sarah T. Omran, Noor Kadhim Mohammed-Jawad, Noor Yousif Fareed. Population Knowledge about Rational use of Antibiotics and Antibiotics Resistance in Basrah, Iraq. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(12):6659-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.01150   Available on:

1.    Ramalingam AJ. History of antibiotics and evolution of resistance. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2015;8(12):1719-1724.
2.    Kumar R, Gupta V, Narang R. Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Novel Hybrid Antibiotics. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2017;10(9):2857-2862.
3.    Marnoor SA. A Review on Antimicrobial Resistance and Role of Pharmacist in tackling this Global Threat. Research Journal of Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms and Technology. 2017;9(4):143-146.
4.    Thomson WM, Sudha M, Venkateswaramurthy N, Kumar RS. A Review on the Irrational Antibiotics Usage in Pediatrics for Respiratory Tract Infections. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2019;12(10):5126-5130.
5.    Sreeja M, Gowrishankar N, Adisha S, Divya K. Antibiotic resistance-reasons and the most common resistant pathogens-A review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2017;10(6):1886-1890.
6.    Zine S, Patankar SA, Raopati SS. Rise of antibiotic resistance in tuberculosis. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2018; 11(7):3201-3204..
7.    Al-Naseri MSA, Turki HK, Hamoud HR. Antibiotics Misuse: trends & attitude among Iraqi physicians. kufa Journal for Nursing sciences. 2019; 9(2):1-9
8.    Mikhael EM, Hasan MK, Abdulridha SZ. Assessment of Antibiotic Knowledge Among Final Year Pharmacy Students at University of Baghdad. The Open Public Health Journal. 2019;12(1).
9.    Al-Yasseri BJH, Hussain NA. Public Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Antibiotics Use and Resistance in Baghdad, Iraq: A Survey Conducted in Outpatient Department of University Teaching Hospital. The Open Public Health Journal. 2019;12(1).
10.    Joshi Y, Tiwari P. Assessment of Knowledge, Practice and Perception for Self-Medication of Antibiotics among Multi-Disciplinary Students. Asian Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Science. 2019;9(3):181-185.
11.    Anandakumar S, Sankari R. Knowledge, attitude and practice on antibiotic therapy among dental students-a pilot study. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2018;11(6):2473-2475.
12.    Jacob J. Reliability: How? When? What? International Journal of Advances in Nursing Management. 2017;5(4):372-374.
13.    Santos JR. Cronbach’s alpha: A tool for assessing the reliability of scales. Journal of extension. 1999 Apr; 37(2):1-5.
14.    Lilliefors HW. On the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test for normality with mean and variance unknown. Journal of the American statistical Association. 1967 Jun 1; 62(318):399-402.
15.    Rosner B, Grove D. Use of the Mann–Whitney U‐test for clustered data. Statistics in medicine. 1999 Jun 15; 18(11):1387-1400.
16.    Whitney J. Notes on methodology-Testing for differences with the nonparametric mann-whitney U test. Journal of WOCN: Wound, Ostomy and Continence Nursing. 1997; 1(24):12-18.
17.    Chan Y, Walmsley RP. Learning and understanding the Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis-of-variance-by-ranks test for differences among three or more independent groups. Physical therapy. 1997 Dec 1; 77(12):1755-1761.
18.    Mukaka MM. A guide to appropriate use of correlation coefficient in medical research. Malawi Medical Journal. 2012; 24(3):69-71.
19.    Sedgwick P. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient. Bmj. 2014 Nov 28; 349:g7327.
20.    de Winter JC, Gosling SD, Potter J. Comparing the Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients across distributions and sample sizes: A tutorial using simulations and empirical data. Psychological methods. 2016 Sep; 21(3):273.
21.    Kong LS, Islahudin F, Muthupalaniappen L, Chong WW. Knowledge and expectations on antibiotic use among older adults in Malaysia: A cross-sectional survey. Geriatrics. 2019 Dec; 4(4):61
22.    You JH, Yau B, Choi KC, Chau CT, Huang QR, Lee SS. Public knowledge, attitudes and behavior on antibiotic use: a telephone survey in Hong Kong. Infection. 2008 Apr 1; 36(2):153-157.
23.    Alqarni SA, Abdulbari M. Knowledge and attitude towards antibiotic use within consumers in Alkharj, Saudi Arabia. Saudi pharmaceutical journal. 2019 Jan 1; 27(Bahlas R, Ramadan I, Bahlas A, Bajunaid N, Al-Ahmadi J, Qasem M, Bahy K. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards the use of antibiotics. Life Science Journal. 2016; 13(1):13. 1):106-111.
24.    Bahlas R, Ramadan I, Bahlas A, Bajunaid N, Al-Ahmadi J, Qasem M, Bahy K. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards the use of antibiotics. Life Science Journal. 2016; 13(1):13.
25.    Aljayyousi GF, Abdel-Rahman ME, El-Heneidy A, Kurdi R, Faisal E. Public practices on antibiotic use: A cross-sectional study among Qatar University students and their family members. PloS one. 2019 Nov 26; 14(11):e0225499.
26.    Shahpawee NS, Chaw LL, Muharram SH, Goh HP, Hussain Z, Ming LC. University Students’ Antibiotic Use and Knowledge of Antimicrobial Resistance: What Are the Common Myths?. Antibiotics. 2020 Jun; 9(6):349.
27.    Roos NA, Bakar MA, Haque M. Knowledge, attitude and practice among Malaysian medical students, doctors, other health professionals and common people regarding antibiotic use, prescribing and resistance: A systematic review. Advances in Human Biology. 2019 Sep 1; 9(3):179.
28.    Ozturk Y, Celik S, Sahin E, Acik MN, Cetinkaya B. Assessment of Farmers’ Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices on Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Resistance. Animals. 2019 Sep; 9(9):653.
29.    Shehadeh M, Suaifan G, Darwish RM, et al knowledge, attitudes and behavior regarding antibiotics use and misuse among adults in the community of Jordan. A pilot study. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. 2012; 20(2):125-133.
30.    Jasim AL, Fadhil TA, Taher SS. Self-medication practice among Iraqi patients in Baghdad City. Am J Pharmacol Sci. 2014; 2(1):18-23.
31.    Al Shawi AF, Ali AF, Enad MM, Salih JA. Self-medication among medical students in Anbar and Fallujah Universities–Iraq. Journal of the Faculty of Medicine Baghdad. 2018 Dec 31;60(3):156-159.
32.    Abduelkarem AR, Othman AM, Abuelkhair ZM, et al. Prevalence Of Self-Medication With Antibiotics Among Residents In United Arab Emirates. Infection and Drug Resistance. 2019; 12:3445.
33.    El Zowalaty ME, Belkina T, Bahashwan SA, et al. Knowledge, awareness, and attitudes toward antibiotic use and antimicrobial resistance among Saudi population. International journal of clinical pharmacy. 2016; 38(5):1261-1268.
34.    André M, Vernby Å, Berg J, Lundborg CS. A survey of public knowledge and awareness related to antibiotic use and resistance in Sweden. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2010; 65(6):1292-1296.
35.    Alsayed A, Alaqra F, Aldoseri F, et al. Knowledge, Attitude and Use of Antibiotics in Upper Respiratory Tract Infections amongst General Population Attending the Primary Health Care Centers. Bahrain Medical Bulletin. 2015 Dec;158(5862):1-.
36.    Awad AI, Aboud EA. Knowledge, attitude and practice towards antibiotic use among the public in Kuwait. PloS one. 2015; 1 0(2):e0117910
37.    Pavydė E, Veikutis V, Mačiulienė A, et al. Public knowledge, beliefs and behavior on antibiotic use and self-medication in Lithuania. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2015 Jun; 12(6):7002-7016.
38.    Patil P, Patil V, Chavan R. Awareness, Knowledge and Attitude about Antibiotics use among Society. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2020; 13(11):5202-5206.
39.    Nepal A, Hendrie D, Robinson S, Selvey LA. Knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to antibiotic use among community members of the Rupandehi District in Nepal. BMC public health. 2019; 19(1):1558.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available