Ceftazidime is a semi synthetic, broad-spectrum, beta-lactam, third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic useful for the treatment of many bacterial infections like joint infections, meningitis, pneumonia, sepsis, urinary tract infections, malignant otitis externa, and vibrio infection. It is synthesized chemically using ethyl acetoacetate, sodium nitrite and hydrochloric acid. The Structural analogues of Ceftazidime are better in terms of activity, potency and stability. Cefmenoxime has increased stability to beta-lactamases, the syn isomer of Ceftizoxime is more potent, Moxalactam has enhanced activity against Pseudomonas, Ceftriaxone has higher serum peak level and a prolonged half-life. Ceftazidime acts by inhibiting bacterial transpeptidases and preventing the synthesis of bacterial cell wall. It is assayed by Infrared spectroscopy. Stability studies showed that the drug degrades extensively on reconstitution in aqueous solution on exposures to heating at 45ºC and UV/Visible radiation, while the drug in solid state is stable. The drug is identified by carbonate or sodium tests and tested for its pH, clarity of solution, loss on drying and bacterial endotoxins. In 2015, USFDA approved a combination of Ceftazidime with Avibactam, a non-ß-lactam ß-lactamase inhibitor which protects ceftazidime from hydrolysis by a wide range of serine ß-lactamases and expands its spectrum of activity to Enterobacteriaceae resistant to ceftazidime, and is used for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and intra-abdominal infections. Five new ceftazidime derivatives have improved acid stability and increased spectrum of ceftazidime. All the Schiff bases showed good antimicrobial activity especially against G(+) bacteria. Compounds 2 and 3 showed broader antibacterial spectrum against both G(+) and G(-) bacteria.
Cite this article:
Mohsina Abed, Sughra Fatima. A Review on Ceftazidime and Avibactum. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(8):4517-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00786
Mohsina Abed, Sughra Fatima. A Review on Ceftazidime and Avibactum. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(8):4517-0. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00786 Available on: https://www.rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2021-14-8-92
1. Fu, K. P. and Neu, H. C. Antibacterial activity of ceftizoxime, a beta-lactamase-stable cephalosporin. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 1980; (17): 583-90.
2. Hoover, J. R. E. and Dunn, G. L. The beta-lactam antibiotics. In Burger's Medicinal Chemistry, 1979; 4: 83-172.
3. Morita, K et al. An approach to broad spectrum cephalosporin’s, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1980 (81-90).
4. Nakano, H. Structure-activity relationships related to ceftizoxime. Medicinal Research Reviews, 1981; 1: 27-57.
5. O'Callaghan et al. Cefuroxime, a new cephalosporin antibiotic: activity in vitro. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 1980 (511)
6. Pandeya S.N, Textbook of Medicinal Chemistry, S.G. Publications, Varanasi, 2003; 2: 802.
7. Phillips, I., et al. Ceftazidime: in-vitro antibacterial activity and susceptibility to /Mactamases compared with that of cefotaxime, moxalactam and other beta-lactam antibiotics. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 2001; (2): 23-31.
8. Tribuddharat C, et al. Burkholderiapseudo mallei class a beta-lactamase mutation that confer selective resistance against ceftazidime or clavulanic acid inhibition. Antimicrobial Agents Chemotherapy 2003; 47: 82-87.
9. Tripathi K.D, Essentials of Medical Pharmacology, Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers, Delhi, 2019; 8th ed: pp. 775, 766-767.