Author(s): Shalsh, F J, Altaif K I, Zharif DM, Hailat IA, Alqaisi KM, Al-Sultan I I


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00855   

Address: Shalsh, F J1, Altaif K I2, Zharif DM3, Hailat IA2, Alqaisi KM4, Al-Sultan I I5*
1Industrial Microbiology, Dept. Directorate of Agricultural Research Science and Technology, Baghdad- Iraq.
2Dept. of Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Middle East University, Amman, Jordan.
3Faculty of Vet. Med., University Malaysia Kelentan.
4Dept. of Medical laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Medical Sciences, Al Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan.
5Faculty of Medicine, Lincoln University College, Malaysia.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 14,      Issue - 9,     Year - 2021

In this study we examined P. betle antibacterial property on two bacterial species namely: Streptococcus agalactiae and Escherichia coli. The extract of P. betle was prepared by mixing 2 gm of P. betle powder with 20 ml of 70% ethanol. Then, the solvent was evaporated by using vacuum evaporator and the residue was freeze dried and stored at -20 ºC. The P. betle extract divided into three different concentrations that are 50 mg/ml, 75 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml. The results revealed that the leaves of Piper betle have many benefits including antibacterial activity. The three concentrations showed an effective zone of inhibition against S. agalactiae and E. coli using Kirby-Baeur method. In addition, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) confirms the effectiveness of P. betle. This study findings indicated that P. betle extract can be a new source of antibacterial agent and an alternative antibacterial for control of S. agalactiae and to certain extant against E. coli infections.

Cite this article:
Shalsh, F J, Altaif K I, Zharif DM, Hailat IA, Alqaisi KM, Al-Sultan I I. A Study on Antibacterial sensitivity character to Piper betle: A Potential for alternative medicine. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(9):4920-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00855

Shalsh, F J, Altaif K I, Zharif DM, Hailat IA, Alqaisi KM, Al-Sultan I I. A Study on Antibacterial sensitivity character to Piper betle: A Potential for alternative medicine. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2021; 14(9):4920-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2021.00855   Available on:

1.    Campbell JR, Hillier SL, Krohn MA, Ferrieri P, Zaleznik DF, Baker CJ. Group B streptococcal colonization and serotype-specofic immunity in pregnant women at delivery. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2000; 96(4): 498-503
2.    Tan CK, Carey AJ, Ipe D, and Ulett G C. Current understanding of streptococcal urinary tract infection. Clinical Management of Complicated Urinary Tract Infection. 2011. 51-70.
3.    Lopardo H. Antimicrobial resistance in β-hemolytic Streptococcus in Argentina. Communicating current research and education topics and trends in applied microbiology. Formatex Journal. 2007; 12: 794-798.
4.    Liddy H, and Holliman R. (2002). Group B Streptococcus highly resistant to gentamicin. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. 2002; 50(1): 142-143.
5.    Paul S and Saha D. Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Barleria prionitis Leaf Extracts against Bacteria. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2012; 2(3): 107-110.
6.    Jeyanthi T, Subramanian P, Kumaravel P. A Comparative Analysis of Antibacterial Activity of Withania somnifera Root Extract with Commercial Antibiotics. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2013; 3(2): 98-102.
7.    Killedar SG, Kope KI, Sangle SB, Tamboli MS. Standardization and Antimicrobial Activity of Watery Fluid at Floral Base of Spathodea campanulata (Pal). Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2011; 1(1): 19-21.
8.    Ranjan B, Honey J, Birendra S. Standardization and phytochemical investigation of Berberis aristata. Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2012; 2(3): 81-84.
9.    Hemalatha M, Arirudran B, Thenmozhi A, Mahadeva Rao US. Antimicrobial Effect of Separate Extract of Acetone, Ethyl Acetate, Methanol and Aqueous from Leaf of Milkweed (Calotropis gigantea L.). Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2011; 1(4): 102-107.
10.    Ramasubramaniaraja R. Pharmacognostical Phytochemical Including GC-MS Investigation of Ethanolic Leaf Extracts of Abutilon indicum (Linn). Asian J. Pharm. Ana. 2011; 1(4): 88-92.
11.    Sheikhlar A, Alimon AR, Daud HM, Saad CR, and Shanagi H. Screening of Morus alba, Citrus limon and Trigonella foenum-graecum extracts for antimicrobial properties and phytochemical compounds. Journal of Biological Sciences. 2013; 13(5): 386-392.
12.    Tee LH, Luqman Chuah A. Pin KY, Abdull Rashih, Yusuf Y.A. Optimization of Spray drying process parameters of Piper betle (Sirih) leaves extract coated with maltodextrin. Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research. 2012; 4(3): 1833-1841.
13.    Jaya Preethi P. Herbal Medicine for Diabetes Mellitus: A Review. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2013; 3(2): 57-70.
14.    Bauer AW, and Kirby WM. Sherris LC. and Turck M. Antibiotic susceptibility testing by a standardized single disk method. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 1996; l45: 493-496.
15.    Tiwari P. Antimicrobial Activity of Amritarishta Prepared by Traditional and Modern Methods. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2014; 4(2): 114-116.
16.    Mohite SA, Shah RR, Patel NR. Antimicrobial Activity of Leaves extracts of Jatropha curcas. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2018; 8(1): 17-20.
17.    Harikrishnan R, Balasundaram C, Kim MC, Kim JS, Han YJ, and Heo MS. Innate immune response and disease resistance in Carassius auratus by triherbal solvent extracts. Fish and Shellfish Immunology. 2009; 27(3): 508-515.
18.    Sagdıç O, and Özcan M. Antibacterial activity of Turkish spice hydrosols. Food Control.2003; 14(3): 141-143.
19.    Jain B, Tewari A, Bhandari BB, and Jhala MK. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from cases of bovine subclinical mastitis. Veterinarski arhiv.2012; 82(5): 423-432.
20.    Unnisa N, Tabassum H, Ali MN, and Ponia K. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of five selected fruits on bacterial wound isolates. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences.2012; 3(4): 531-546.
21.    Aibinu I, Adenipekun T, Adelowotan T, Ogunsanya T, and Odugbemi T. Evaluation of the antimicrobial properties of different parts of Citrus aurantifolia (lime fruit) as used locally. African Journal of Traditional. Complementary, and Alternative Medicines.2007; 4(2): 185
22.    Christian H, Hofele RV, Urlaub H, and Ficner R. Insights into the activation of the helicase Prp43 by biochemical studies and structural mass spectrometry. Nucleic Acids Research.2014; 42(2): 1162-1179.
23.    Stiller RJ, Padilla L, Choudary R, Tinghittella T, Laifer S. Group β Streptococcus antibiotic resistance patterns in pregnant women. Conn Med, Jun.Jul. 2003; (6): 323-6.
24.    Tadesse DA, Zhao S, Tong E, Ayers S, Singh A, Bartholomew MJ, and McDermott PF. Antimicrobial drug resistance in Escherichia coli from humans and food animals, United States, 1950–2002. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2012; 18(5): 741.
25.    Muthukumaran P, Padmapriya P, Salomi S, Umamaheshwari R, Kalaiarasan P, Malarvizhi C. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Powder. Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2011; 1(4): 108-110.
26.    Miranda CD, and Zemelman R. Bacterial resistance to oxytetracycline in Chilean salmon farming. Aquaculture. 2002; 212(1-4): 31-47.
27.    Jahir Alam Khan. JA and Naveen Kummar. Evaluation of antibacterial properties of extract of Piper betle leaf. Journal of pharmaceutical and biomedical science. 2011; 11(01).
28.    Hoque MM, Rattila S, Shishir MA, Bari ML, Inatsu Y, and Kawamoto S. Antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of betel leaf (Piper betle L.) against some food borne pathogens. Bangladesh Journal of Microbiology. 2011; 28(2): 58-63.
29.    Pradan SA and Biswasroy P. Golden heart of nature: Piper betle. Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry.2013; 1 (6): 147-167.
30.    Najiah M, Aqilah NI, Lee KL, Khairulbariyyah Z, Mithun S, Jalal KCA, and Nadirah M. Massive mortality associated with Streptococcus agalactiae infection in cage-cultured red hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus in Como River, Kenyir Lake, Malaysia. Journal of Biological Sciences. 2012; 12(8): 438-442.

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available