Sofi Nurmay Stiani, Linda Susanti, Dimas Danang Indriatmoko
Sofi Nurmay Stiani1, Linda Susanti2, Dimas Danang Indriatmoko3
1Department of Pharmaceutics, STIKes Salsabila, Serang Banten, Indonesia.
2,3Department of Pharmaceutics, Faculty of Science and Pharmacy, Mathla'ul Anwar University Banten.
Volume - 15,
Issue - 3,
Year - 2022
Liquid soap is an important cosmetic product for the community because it is used in everyday life. Liquid soap is made through a saponification reaction from oil or fat which is reacted with alkalis. Betel nut (Areca catechu L.) contains flavonoid compounds that have antiseptic properties and alkaloid compounds that act as bacteria inhibitors. Objective: This study aims to formulate liquid soap with the addition of Areca catechu L. extract to test the antimicrobial activity of formulated soap preparations. Method: The research design was in the form of an experimental method, namely by extracting the simplicia Areca catechu L. with the maceration method to obtain a thick extract of Areca catechu L. Evaluation of the quality of the soap included pH and high foam. Antimicrobial activity testing used the good method against liquid soap formulation and positive control. The microbe tested was Staphylococcus aureus (gram-positive bacteria). Result: The test results of the quality of the liquid soap formulation showed that the pH of the test soap was 10 and the positive control pH was 9 and the foam height had good results, namely 1-2cm, and had met SNI 06-4085-1996 standards. The results showed that formulation III with an extract content of 10% had great antimicrobial activity on the microbe Staphylococcus aureus with a value of 20.66mm. In the positive control, the antimicrobial activity showed a value of 15.21mm. at a concentration of 5%, the inhibition diameter was 14.77mm and the concentration was 7.5%, the inhibition diameter was 15.77mm. The results of statistical analysis using the One-Way ANOVA method followed by Post hoc analysis showed that the liquid soap extract of Areca catechu L. had greater antimicrobial potential than the positive control. Conclusion: Liquid soap formulation with the addition of thick extract Areca catechu L with a concentration of 10% has the greatest antimicrobial activity compared to the concentration of 5%, 7.5%, and positive control X.
Cite this article:
Sofi Nurmay Stiani, Linda Susanti, Dimas Danang Indriatmoko. Formulation and Anti-bacterial Activity Test for Liquid Soap Betel Nut Extract (Areca catechu L.) against Staphylococcus aureus. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(3):1003-7. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00167
Sofi Nurmay Stiani, Linda Susanti, Dimas Danang Indriatmoko. Formulation and Anti-bacterial Activity Test for Liquid Soap Betel Nut Extract (Areca catechu L.) against Staphylococcus aureus. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(3):1003-7. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00167 Available on: https://www.rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-3-10
1. Kasenda, J. C., Yamlean, P. V. Y. and Lolo, W. A. Liquid Ethanol Extract of Cat's Tail Leaf (Acalypha hispida Burm. F) Against Bacterial Growth Staphylococcus aureus. PHARMACON J. Ilm. Farm. 2016: 4(3): https://doi.org/10.35799/pha.4.2015.8859.
2. Umamageswari, S. S. M., George, P. and Kalyani, M. A study on coexistence of panton valentine leukocidin gene from hospital acquired methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus. Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2019; 12(2): doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00089.1.
3. Selvan, S. R. and Ganapathy, D. Efficacy of fifth generation cephalosporins against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus- A review. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2016; 9(10): doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00369.3.
4. Patel, N. M., Suryawanshi, H. P. and Pawar, S. P. Phytopharmacological Study of Areca catechu leaf . Res. J. Pharmacol. Pharmacodyn. 2019; 11(3): doi:10.5958/2321-5836.2019.00017.x.
5. Handayani, F., Sundu, R. and Karapa, H. N. Activity Testing of Areca seed (Areca catechu L.) Ethanol extract on burn wound healing on the back skin of male white mice (Mus musculus). J. Ilm. Manuntung. 2017; 2(2): doi:10.51352/jim.v2i2.60.
6. Yulianti, R., Nugraha, D. A. and Nurdianti, L. Formulation Of Liquid Battery Soap Leaf Extract Formula (Orthosiphon aristatus (Bl) Miq.). Kartika J. Ilm. Farm. 2015; 3(2): doi:10.26874/kjif.v3i2.98.
7. Dixon, N., Morgan, M. and Equils, O. Foam soap is not as effective as liquid soap in eliminating hand microbial flora. Am. J. Infect. Control. 2017; 45(7): doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2017.01.020.
8. Ering, M. N., Yamlean, P. V. Y. and Antasionasti, I. Liquid soap preparation formulation of turi (Sesbania grandiflora L.) Leaves ethanol extract and anti-fungal test against Candida albicans. Pharmacon. 2020; 9(3): https://doi.org/10.35799/pha.9.2020.30016.
9. Dimpudus, S. A., Yamlean, P. V. Y. and Yudistira, A. Formulation of antiseptic liquid soap extract ethanol extract of henna water (Impatiens balsamina L.) And testing its effectiveness against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria in vitro. 2017; 6(3), 208–215: https://doi.org/10.35799/pha.6.2017.16885.
10. Sarlina, S., Razak, A. R. and Tandah, M. R. Antibacterial Activity Test of Lemongrass Leaf Extract Gel (Cymbopogon nardus L. Rendle) against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that causes acne. J. Farm. Galen. (Galenika J. Pharmacy). 2017;3(2): doi:10.22487/j24428744.0.v0.i0.8770.
11. Misna, M. and Diana, K. Antibacterial activity of onion skin extract (Allium cepa L.) Against Staphylococcus aureus. J. Farm. Galen. (Galenika J. Pharmacy). 2016: 2(2): doi:10.22487/j24428744.2016.v2.i2.5990.
12. Widyasanti, A., Winaya, A. T. and Rosalinda, S. Making Liquid Soap Made From White Coconut oil. Agrointek. 2019; 13(2): http://dx.doi.org/10.21107/agrointek.v13i2.5102.
13. BPOM. Regulation of the Head of BPOM no. 12 of 2014 Concerning The Quality Requirements Of Traditional Medicines. Bpom 1–16 (2014).
14. Debnath, S., Niranjan Babu, M., Dega, M. and Kumar, K. T. Formulation and Evaluation of Liquid Soap Containing Herbal Antimicrobial Agent. Res. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 2011; 3(5): Available on: http://rjpponline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2011-3-5-.
15. Manvar, M. N. Antibacterial Activity of Leaves and Flowers of Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. (Convolvulacea) . Asian J. Pharm. Res. 2018; 8(2): doi:10.5958/2231-5691.2018.00016.3.
16. Mansour, O., Salamma, R. and Abbas, L. Screening of antibacterial activity in vitro of Cyclamen hederifolium tubers extracts. Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2016; 9(11): doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2016.00374.7.
17. Zam, W., Harfouch, R., Mais, A. D. and Rand, K. Anti- Staphylococcus aureus efficacy of six natural honey samples originated from Syria . Res. J. Pharmacogn. Phytochem. 2018; 10(01): doi:10.5958/0975-4385.2018.00004.3.
18. Katariya, C. and Arjunkumar, R. Antimicrobial effect of curry leaves on Staphylococcus aureus – An In vitro Study . Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2019; 12(7):. doi:10.5958/0974-360x.2019.00559.6.
19. Anitha, D. R. and Gopinath, P. Antibacterial activity of ginger oil against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Res. J. Pharm. Technol. 2018; 11(8): doi:10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00598.X.
20. Mankar, S. D., Shaikh, S. B. and Tamboli, A. A. Formulation of Herbal Tablet with the help of Tulsi and Turmeric Extract which Showing Antimicrobial Activity. Res. J. Sci. Technol. 2020; 12(1): doi:10.5958/2349-2988.2020.00009.1.
21. Rahman, F. A., Haniastuti, T. and Utami, T. W. Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of soursop leaf (Annona muricata L.) Ethanol extract on Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668. Magazine. Doctor. Indonesian teeth. 2017; 4(01): doi:10.22146/majkedgiind.11325.
22. Ibrahim, A. and Kuncoro, H. Identification of secondary metabolits and antibacterial activities of leaf leaf extract (Peronema canescens jack.) Against some bacterial pathogens. J. Trop. Pharm. Chem. 2012; 2(1): doi:10.25026/jtpc.v2i1.43.