Cadmium toxicity to a snail Lymnaea radix cor collected from Shatt Almadina stream that belongs to Euphrates River, Basra province, Iraq was investigated. DNA damage was used as an indicator for cadmium toxicity in the current study. The adult snails were exposed to several concentrations of cadmium for different periods. DNA fragmentation occurring in the snail exposed to cadmium was substantiated by comet assay and expressed in term Tail DNA percentage. Results revealed a significant increase in DNA damage at cadmium concentrations 60, 80, and 100µg/l for an exposure time of 3 days, and the highest percentage of tail DNA was at the cadmium concentration of 100µg/l. On the other hand, the DNA damage significantly elevated when the exposure period increased to 5 days and the highest tail DNA percentage (18%) was recorded at cadmium concentration 100 µg/l. the assessment of DNA damage in the freshwater snail Lymnaea radix cor gives an early caution signal for aquatic environmental contamination by cadmium.
Cite this article:
Rafid M. Karim. Evaluation of DNA Damage of Cadmium in Gastropod Lymnaea radix cor (Annandale and Prashad, 1919) From Euphrates River. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(6):2761-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00462
Rafid M. Karim. Evaluation of DNA Damage of Cadmium in Gastropod Lymnaea radix cor (Annandale and Prashad, 1919) From Euphrates River. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(6):2761-4. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00462 Available on: https://www.rjptonline.org/AbstractView.aspx?PID=2022-15-6-66
1. Cooney J. D. Freshwater Tests’ in G.M. Rand (ed.) Fundamentals of Aquatic Toxicology: Effects Environmental Fate and Risk Assessment. Taylor and Francis Ltd. Washington DC 1995; 71–102.
2. Chandurvelan R. Marsden I.D. Gaw S. Glover C.N. Biochemical biomarker responses of green-lipped mussel Perna canaliculus to acute and subchronic waterborne cadmium toxicity. Aquatic toxicology 2013; 140-141: 303-313.
3. Deepak Dwivedi. Cadmium and Mercury Pollution and its Preventive Measures. Research J. Engineering and Tech. 2012; 3(1): 06-08.
4. Mary Charlet R. Anuradha R. Effect of protocatechuic acid on TNF-α mRNA level in the liver of Hepatotoxicity rats. Research J. Pharma. Dosage Forms and Tech. 2012; 4(6): 324-327.
5. Vinoth Kumar P Sudheer Kumar Ch Veera Thamarai Selvi V Amala Bricey A. Hepatoprotective Effect of Pergularia daemia on Cadmium Chloride Induced Toxicity in Rats.Research J. Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics. 2011; 3(1): 19-21.
6. Rekha D. Kini Tripathi Y. Raghuveer C.V. Sheila R. Pai. Effect of Vitamin E Pre-Treatment on Histopathological Changes on Rat Testis Following Cadmium Chloride Administration. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 6(8): August 2013; 874-877.
7. Widjiati Dewita Viski F Hendrawan Kusuma E Purwantari Syuhuud A Wajdi Ahmad B Zulfarniasyah Ainun S Putri Mitha A Rahmawati Maulana F Al-Ilmi. Histopathologic Changes in Liver Tissue from Cadmium Intoxicated Mice and Treated with Curcumin during Pregnancy. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2018; 11(3): 863-866.
8. Jenan Mahdi Jwad. Study the Effect of Cadmium Chloride on the Histological Structure and Biochemical Enzymes in Male White Mice. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(1): 99-102.
9. Florin Masih Gautam R.K. Inhibition of Phosphatases in the Digestive Tract of Albino Rats (Rattus-rattus albino). Research J. Science and Tech. 2010; 2(3): 57-59.
10. Rainbow P.S. and White S.L. Comparative strategies of heavy metal accumulation by crustaceans: zinc copper and cadmium in a decapod an amphipod and a barnacle. Hydrobiologia 1989; 174(3): 245–262.
11. Van Hatton B. De Voogt P. Van Den Bosch L Van Straalen N.M. and Joosse E.N.G. Bioaccumulation of cadmium by the freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus (L.) from aqueous and dietary sources. Environmental pollution 1989; 62:129–151.
12. Pallavi M Patil Durugkar NJ Kakolkar PP Chaudhari PD. Bioaccumulation of Cadmium Chloride in the Fresh Water Fish Cattle-Cattle. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 4 (1): January 2011; 121-123.
13. Frieberg L. Piscator M. Nordberg G. and Kjellstrom T. Cadmium in the environment: II. US environmental protection agency report EPA-R2-73190. US Govt. Printing Office Washington DC. 1973.
14. Piscator M. Metabolism and effects of cadmium. In: Proc. Conf. Management and control of heavy metals in the environment London CEP Consultants Ltd. Edinburgh 1979; 1–7.
15. Abhilash D. P. Viola Rose S. Indirani B. Removal of Cadmium (II) from aqueous solution using Coffee powder - A Kinetic study. Asian J. Research Chem. 2018; 11(2): 360-364.
16. Parkavi R. Kavitha J. Lekha N. Dinakaran K. Ratiometric fluorescent detection and removal of cadmium ions from aqueous solution using Indole functionalized Polysulfone. Asian J. Research Chem. 2020; 13(4): 255-260.
17. Mance G. Pollution threat of heavy metals in aquatic environments. Elsevier Applied Science publishers Ltd London 1987; 372.
18. Rainbow P.S. Phillips D.J.H. and Depledge M.H. The signiﬁcance of trace metal concentrations in marine invertebrates. A need for laboratory investigation of accumulation strategies. Marine Pollution Bulletin 1990; 21 (7): 321-324.
19. Serra R. Carpene` E. Marcantonio A.C. and Isani G. Cadmium accumulation and Cd-binding proteins in the bivalve Scapharca inaequivalvis. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part 1995; 111 (2): 165-174.
20. Dhara K. Saha N.C. and Maiti A.K. Studies on acute and chronic toxicity of cadmium to freshwater snail Lymnaea acuminata (Lamarck) with special reference to behavioral and hematological changes. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2017; 24: 27326–27333.
21. Nica D.V. Popescu C. Draghici G.A. Andrica F. Privistirescu I.A. Gergen I.I. and Stöger R. High-level dietary cadmium exposure is associated with global DNA hypermethylation in the gastropod hepatopancreas. Plos One 2017; 12(9):1-15.
22. Pavlaki M.D. Araújo M.J. Cardoso D.N. Silva A.R. Cruz A. Mendo S. Soares A.M.V.M. Calado R. and Loureiro S. Ecotoxicity and genotoxicity of cadmium in different marine trophic levels. Environmental Pollution 2016; 215: 203-212.
23. Kori-Siakpere O. Ake J.E.G. and Avworo U.M. Sublethal Effects of Cadmium on Some Selected Haematological Parameters of Heteroclarias (A Hybrid of Heterobranchus bidorsalis and Clarias gariepinus). International Journal of Zoological Research 2006; 2(1): 77–83.
24. Rajamanickam V. and Muthuswamy N. Effect of heavy metals induced toxicity on metabolic biomarkers in common carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.). Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology 2008; 2(01):192–200.
25. Chakraborty S. Ray M. and Ray S. Sodium Arsenite Induced Alteration of Hemocyte Density of Lamellidens marginalis – An Edible Mollusk from India. Clean - Soil Air Water 2008; 36(2):195 – 200.
26. Annandale N. and Prashad B. Report on the freshwater gastropod molluscs of lower Mesopotamia. Part 1.- The genus Limnaea. 1919; 3: 103-115. Plate. XIII.
27. Duthie S.J. and Collins A.R. The inﬂuence of cell growth detoxifying enzymes and DNA repair on hydrogen peroxide-mediated DNA damage (measured using the comet assay) in human cells. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 1997; 22 (4): 717-724.
28. Shugart L.R. Chapter 11. Biological monitoring: Testing for genotoxicity. In J.F. McCarthy and L.R. Shugart eds Biological Markers of Environmental Contaminants 1990; 205-16. Boca Raton: Lewis Publishers Inc.
29. Clements W. H. Integrating effects of contaminants across levels of biological organization: an overview. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Stress and Recovery 2000; 7: 113–116.
30. Karakas S.B. and Otludil B. Accumulation and histopathological effects of cadmium on the great pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis Linnaeus 1758 (Gastropoda: Pulmonata). Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 2020; 78: 1-8.
31. Banaee M. Sureda A. Taheri S. and Hedayatzadeh F. Sub-lethal eﬀects of dimethoate alone and in combination with cadmium on biochemical parameters in freshwater snail Galba truncatula. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology and Pharmacology 2019; 220: 62–70.
32. De Silva N.A.L. Marsden I.D. Gaw S. and Glover C.N. Acute waterborne cadmium toxicity in the estuarine pulmonate mud snail Amphibola crenata. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety Volume 2018; 158: 274–283.
33. Sarkar A. Bhagat J. Ingole B.S. Rao D.P. and Markad V.L. Genotoxicity of cadmium chloride in the marine gastropod Nerita chamaeleon using comet assay and alkaline unwinding assay. Environmental toxicology 2015; 30 (2): 177-187.
34. Vincent-Hubert F. Revel M. and Garric J. DNA strands breaks detected in embryos of the adult snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum and in neonates exposed to genotoxic chemicals. Aquatic toxicology 2012; 122-123: 1-8.