Author(s): Bereket Molla Tigabu, Dilan Salam Omer, Mohammed I.M. Gubari, Tarza Jamal Thanoon Siahmansur, Noel Vinay Thomas


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00570   

Address: Bereket Molla Tigabu1*, Dilan Salam Omer2, Mohammed I.M. Gubari3, Tarza Jamal Thanoon Siahmansur1, Noel Vinay Thomas4
1Department of Pharmacy, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan, Iraq.
2Department of Pharmacy, National Institute of Technology, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan, Iraq.
3Department of Family and Community Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan, Iraq.
4Department of MLS, Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaymaniyah, Kurdistan, Iraq.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 15,      Issue - 8,     Year - 2022

Objective: Irrational of management of URT diseases has undeniable negative impact on patient outcome, health care cost and antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study was to assess the empirical management of upper respiratory tract infections in community pharmacies. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies found in Sulaymaniyah city from March 25, 2021 to April 24, 2021. Fifty-one pharmacies were selected purposively and a respondent in each pharmacy was selected based on convenience. A semi-structured self-administered questionnaire comprised of items concentrating on the socio-demographic characteristics, academic status, ownership status, without prescription antibiotic dispensing, causes and medications for URTIs, and referral was used. The data was analyzed by STATA 14 statistical software and summarized in tables and figures. Results: The average age of study participants was 31.3 years ± 8.0 years; the age ranges from 21 to 59 years. The average number of URTI cases seen by a community pharmacy practitioner per day was 3.9±1.9. Common cold (n=21), pharyngitis (n=16), sinusitis (n=14) and rhinitis (n=13) were the top four conditions treated inside community pharmacies. Antibiotics (n=29), analgesics (n=19) and antihistamines (n=17) were the most frequently used class of medicines to manage URTIs. From the total, 29 (56.9%) dispense antibiotics without physician request to manage URTIs. Level of education (P=0.003) and ownership status (P=0.011) had a statistically significant association with antibiotics dispensing without prescription. Conclusion: On average at least four URT diseases cases visit a community pharmacy per day and, common cold and pharyngitis were the most common types. The use of antibiotics without prescription for the treatment of URT diseases was rampant. We highlight the need for a larger survey on the skill of community pharmacy practitioners on the management of URT diseases.

Cite this article:
Bereket Molla Tigabu, Dilan Salam Omer, Mohammed I.M. Gubari, Tarza Jamal Thanoon Siahmansur, Noel Vinay Thomas. Assessment of Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases Empiric Management in community pharmacies of Sulaymaniyah City, Kurdistan, Iraq. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(8):3407-1. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00570

Bereket Molla Tigabu, Dilan Salam Omer, Mohammed I.M. Gubari, Tarza Jamal Thanoon Siahmansur, Noel Vinay Thomas. Assessment of Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases Empiric Management in community pharmacies of Sulaymaniyah City, Kurdistan, Iraq. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2022; 15(8):3407-1. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00570   Available on:

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