Author(s): Pamela Kusumadewi Putri Thaib, Anny Setijo Rahaju, Etty Hary Kusumastuti


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00140   

Address: Pamela Kusumadewi Putri Thaib1,2,3, Anny Setijo Rahaju1,2,3*, Etty Hary Kusumastuti1,3
1Department of Anatomical Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia.
2Universitas Airlangga Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia.
3Dr. Soetomo General Academic Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 16,      Issue - 2,     Year - 2023

Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer with high mortality. Escalation of T stage associates with worse survival. Proper and significant biomarker examination necessary to determine the predictive factor and the opportunity of targeted therapy as well. Upregulated CXCR4 expression on cancer cell promotes its aggressive growth, dissemination, metastasis, and conventional therapy resistance. Overexpression of CXCR4 may induce MMP-2 activity on tumor cell, an enzyme that degrade extracellular matrix and basal membrane particularly, which associated with tumor invasion and metastasis. Those biomarkers activity might be advantaged under hypoxic microenvironment in ccRCC. This study aimed to analyze the role and correlation of CXCR4 and MMP-2 expression with various T stages in ccRCC. Analytic observational study with cross-sectional approach was conducted on 43 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue of patients diagnosed as ccRCC in Anatomical Pathology Laboratory of Dr. Soetomo Hospital throughout January 2015 until December 2020. CXCR4 and MMP-2 expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis with Kruskal-Wallis and Spearman test were utilized to analyze the expression difference and correlation. Difference of both CXCR4 (p=0.016) and MMP-2 (p=0.029) expression were obtained on various T stages. There was a significant positive correlation between CXCR4 expression (p=0.001) and MMP-2 expression (p=0.002) with T stage, also between CXCR4 with MMP-2 expression in various T stage of ccRCC (p=0.000). In conclusion, this study exhibited that CXCR4 and MMP-2 expression showed synergistic and positive correlation with T stage and might be considered as the basis of targeted therapy in ccRCC.

Cite this article:
Pamela Kusumadewi Putri Thaib, Anny Setijo Rahaju, Etty Hary Kusumastuti. Correlation between CXCR4 and MMP-2 Expression with T Stage in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(2):821-9. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00140

Pamela Kusumadewi Putri Thaib, Anny Setijo Rahaju, Etty Hary Kusumastuti. Correlation between CXCR4 and MMP-2 Expression with T Stage in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(2):821-9. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00140   Available on:

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