Author(s): Alkeshkumar Patel, Hemangini Vora, Neeraj Jain, Manish Nandpal, Sahil Panjvani, Samir Patel


DOI: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00340   

Address: Alkeshkumar Patel1, Hemangini Vora2, Neeraj Jain3, Manish Nandpal1, Sahil Panjvani4, Samir Patel1*
1Ramanbhai Patel College of Pharmacy, CHARUSAT, Changa, Gujarat, India.
2Gujarat Cancer and Research Institute, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India.
3PD Patel Institute of Applied Science, CHARUSAT, Changa, Gujarat, India.
4Vadodara Clinical Laboratory, Vadodara, Gujarat.
*Corresponding Author

Published In:   Volume - 17,      Issue - 5,     Year - 2024

Background: Colorectal Cancer may occur due to environmental pollutants like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrazines. These are indirect carcinogens and initiate carcinogenesis after their metabolic transformation within the body. This causes more than 0.94 million deaths every year. Methods: We investigated the prophylactic intervention of hydroalcoholic extract of Tinospora cordifoilia stems and aqueous extract Solanum nigrum leaves in 1, 2 dimethyl hydrazine induced colorectal cancer in Sprague Dawley rats. The chemopreventive potential was observed at low and high doses for 27- and 32-weeks duration. The chemopreventive potential of natural products was evaluated by estimating the change in body weight, diarrhoea, hematological parameters, change in cytokines level, cancer stem cells marker ALDH1,T lymphocyte subpopulation estimation by flow cytometry, confirmation of adenoma, adenocarcinoma and liver metastasis based on histology. Results: The high dose of the test drug showed a significant difference (p<0.05) compared to disease control groups animals with respect to blood and tissue-based parameters. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis of herbal extract showed the presence of berberine, tinosporide, quercetin,ellagic acid and naringenin in natural products. Probable mechanisms involved downregulating mRNA of nuclear factor kappa B, matrix metalloproteinases-9, tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-6 and cyclooxygenase-2 while promoting proapoptotic caspases, antioxidant capacity, interleukin-12. Conclusion: The high dose of the test drug has chemopreventive and detoxifying potential against carcinogen induced colorectal cancer in animal model.

Cite this article:
Alkeshkumar Patel, Hemangini Vora, Neeraj Jain, Manish Nandpal, Sahil Panjvani, Samir Patel. Evaluating the Immunomodulatory and Detoxifying role of Tinospora cordifolia and Solanum nigrum in the treatment of Colorectal Cancer. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(5):2155-3. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00340

Alkeshkumar Patel, Hemangini Vora, Neeraj Jain, Manish Nandpal, Sahil Panjvani, Samir Patel. Evaluating the Immunomodulatory and Detoxifying role of Tinospora cordifolia and Solanum nigrum in the treatment of Colorectal Cancer. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology. 2024; 17(5):2155-3. doi: 10.52711/0974-360X.2024.00340   Available on:

1.    Xi Y and Xu P. Global colorectal cancer burden in 2020 and projections to 2040. Transl Oncol. 2021; 14(10): 101174.
2.    Yang HC, Wu YH, Yen WC, Liu HY, Hwang TL, Stern A. The redox role of G6PD in cell growth, cell death, and cancer. Cells. 2019; 8(9): 1055.
3.    Compton C, Compton C. Understanding the Hallmark Characteristics of Cancer. Cancer: The Enemy from Within: A Comprehensive Textbook of Cancer’s Causes, Complexities and Consequences. 2020; 49-81.
4.    Le DT, Kim TW, Van Cutsem E, Geva R, Jäger D, Hara H, Burge M, O’Neil B, Kavan P, Yoshino T, Guimbaud R. Phase II open-label study of pembrolizumab in treatment-refractory, microsatellite instability–high/ mismatch repair–deficient metastatic colorectal cancer: KEYNOTE-164. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2020; Jan 1: 38(1):11. 10.1200/JCO.19.02107
5.    Umezawa S, Higurashi T, Komiya Y, Arimoto J, Horita N, Kaneko T. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer: past, present, and future. Cancer Sci. 2019; 110(10): 3018–26.
6.    Mohammed A and Shoemaker RH. Targeting the Leukotriene Pathway for Colon Cancer Interception. Cancer Prevention Research. 2022; 15(10): 637–40.
7.    Dhillon S. Regorafenib: a review in metastatic colorectal cancer. Drugs.2018; 78(11): 1133–44.
8.    Blondy S, David V, Verdier M, Mathonnet M, Perraud A, Christou N. 5‐Fluorouracil resistance mechanisms in colorectal cancer: From classical pathways to promising processes. Cancer Sci. 2020. 111(9): 3142–54.
9.    To KKW, Wu M, Tong CWS, Yan W. Drug transporters in the development of multidrug resistance in colorectal cancer. In: Drug Resistance in Colorectal Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Therapeutic Strategies. Elsevier, 2020; 35–55. 10.3748/wjg.v22.i30.6876
10.    Ma L, Zhang M, Zhao R, Wang D, Ma Y, Ai L. Plant natural products: promising resources for cancer chemoprevention. Molecules. 2021; 26(4): 933.
11.    De Silva SF, Alcorn J, et al.Flaxseed lignans as important dietary polyphenols for cancer prevention and treatment: Chemistry, pharmacokinetics, and molecular targets. Pharmaceuticals. 2019; 12(2): 68.
12.    Lee DY, Song MY, Kim EH. Role of oxidative stress and nrf2/keap1 signaling in colorectal cancer: Mechanisms and therapeutic perspectives with phytochemicals. Antioxidants. 2021; 10(5): 743.
13.    Fiala ES. Investigations into the metabolism and mode of action of the colon carcinogens 1, 2‐dimethylhydrazine and azoxymethane. Cancer. 1977; 40(S5): 2436–45.<2436::AID-CNCR2820400908>3.0.CO;2-U
14.    Sharma M, Shukla G, et al. Administration of metabiotics extracted from probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus MD 14 inhibit experimental colorectal carcinogenesis by targeting Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Front Oncol. 2020; 10:746.
15.    Venkatachalam K, Vinayagam R, ArokiaVijayaAnand M, Isa NM, Ponnaiyan R. Biochemical and molecular aspects of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis: a review. Toxicol Res (Camb). 2020; 9(1): 2–18.
16.    Zhou Y, Xia L, Wang H, Oyang L, Su M, Liu Q. Cancer stem cells in progression of colorectal cancer. Oncotarget. 2018; 9(70): 33403. 10.18632/oncotarget.23607
17.    Kalantari E, Taheri T, Fata S, Abolhasani M, Mehrazma M, Madjd Z. Significant co-expression of putative cancer stem cell markers, EpCAM and CD166, correlates with tumor stage and invasive behavior in colorectal cancer. World J SurgOncol; 2022: 20(1), 1–11.
18.    Mohamed SY, Kaf RM, Ahmed MM, Elwan A, Ashour HR, Ibrahim A. The prognostic value of cancer stem cell markers (Notch1, ALDH1, and CD44) in primary colorectal carcinoma. J Gastrointest Cancer. 2019; 50(4): 824–37.
19.    Kapinova A, Kubatka P, Golubnitschaja O, Kello M, Zubor P, Solar P. Dietary phytochemicals in breast cancer research: anticancer effects and potential utility for effective chemoprevention. Environ Health Prev Med. 2018; 23(1):  1–18.
20.    Chang JY, Kim JH, Kang J, Park Y, Park SJ, Cheon JH. mTOR signaling combined with cancer stem cell markers as a survival predictor in stage II colorectal cancer. Yonsei Med J. 2020; 61(7):  572. 10.3349/ymj.2020.61.7.572
21.    Xiong Y, Wang K, Zhou H, Peng L, You W, Fu Z. Profiles of immune infiltration in colorectal cancer and their clinical significant: A gene expression‐based study. Cancer Med. 2018;  7(9):  4496–508.
22.    Lanuza PM, Vigueras A, Olivan S, Prats AC, Costas S, Llamazares G. Activated human primary NK cells efficiently kill colorectal cancer cells in 3D spheroid cultures irrespectively of the level of PD-L1 expression. Oncoimmunology. 2018; 7(4): e1395123.
23.    Toor SM, Murshed K, Al-Dhaheri M, Khawar M, Abu Nada M, Elkord E. Immune checkpoints in circulating and tumor-infiltrating CD4+ T cell subsets in colorectal cancer patients. Front Immunol; 2019:  10: 2936.
24.    Gao S, Hu J, Wu X, Liang Z. PMA treated THP-1-derived-IL-6 promotes EMT of SW48 through STAT3/ERK-dependent activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018; 108:  618–24.
25.    Chaitra LP, Prashant A, Gowthami CS, Hajira B, Suma MN, Mahesh SS. Detection of cancer stem cell-related markers in different stages of colorectal carcinoma patients of Indian origin by immunohistochemistry. J Cancer Res Ther. 2019; 15(1):  75.  10.4103/jcrt.JCRT_991_16
26.    Boerner T et al. Early liver metastases after “failure” of adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colorectal cancer: is there a role for additional adjuvant therapy? HPB. 2021; 23(4):  601–8.
27.    Rahul Ashok Sachdeo, Manoj S. Charde, Ritu D. Chakole. Colorectal Cancer: An Overview. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2020; 10(3): 211-223.
28.    Bracci L, Fabbri A, Del Cornò M, Conti L. Dietary Polyphenols: Promising Adjuvants for Colorectal Cancer Therapies. Cancers (Basel). 2021; vol.13(18): Pp.4499.
29.    Vu Van Du, Nguyen Duc Lam, Dao Van Tung. Valuating Concentration of Cea, Ca 19-9 And some Biochemical Parameters in Patients with Colorectal Cancer. Int. J. of Advances in Nur. Management. 2018; 6(2): 93-97.
30.    Fakhri S, Piri S, Khan H. Cachexia and phytonutrients. In: The Role of Phytonutrients in Metabolic Disorders. Elsevier. 2022;  397–417.
31.    Rohitas Deshmukh, Sujata Kumari, Ranjit K. Harwansh. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Snapshot of Current Knowledge. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2020; 13(2): 956-962.10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00180.8.
32.    Wissam Zam, ReineDawod. Overview of the Probiotics’ role in Gastrointestinal disorders. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2020; 13(11):5557-5561.10.5958/0974-360X.2020.00970.1
33.    Sneha James, Krishnan Namboori P K, Leena K Pappachen. Glutathione Derivatives as Potential Drugs for Colorectal Cancer Resulted by APC Mutations.10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00673.5
34.    Chari KY, Polu PR, Shenoy RR. An appraisal of pumpkin seed extract in 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon cancer in Wistar rats. Journal of toxicology. 2018; Sep 2:2018 .
35.    K. Sukanya Mathew, Anjana Thomas, Roshni P R, AkhilaSivadas, K Pavithran. Clinical Evidence of Regorifenib in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A Case Report. Research J. Pharm. and Tech 2019; 12(2): 513-515.10.5958/0974-360X.2019.00090.8
36.    Subin Mary Zachariah, N. Aleykutty, VidyaViswanad, Halima O.A. An Overview on Hepatoprotective Activity of Natural Products. Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 2012; 5(3): 317-321.
37.    Hydes T, Noll A, Salinas‐Riester G, Abuhilal M, Armstrong T, Hamady Z. IL‐12 and IL‐15 induce the expression of CXCR6 and CD49a on peripheral natural killer cells. Immun Inflamm Dis. 2018; 6(1): 34–46.
38.    Jesna M Joy, Reenu Jose Antony, ShanmugaSundaramRajagopal. Dietary Fiber Intake and Benefit of Colorectal Cancer. Asian J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 2019; 9(3): 209-214.10.5958/2231-5659.2019.00033.X
39.    Muhammad Miftahussurur, Camilia Metadea Aji Savitri, Yudith Annisa Ayu Rezkhita, Amie Vidyani, Dalla Doohan, Diah Priyantini, Titong Sugihartono, Yoshio Yamaoka. A Systematic Review of Complementary Therapies in Colorectal cancer patients: Summarizing the Current Global Options. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology 2023; 16(3): 1540-6.10.52711/0974-360X.2023.00252
40.    Baldev Krishan Sharma. Synthetic and Natural Compounds as Anti-Cancer Agents – A Review . Asian J. Research Chem. 2017; 10(5): 699-707.10.5958/0974-4150.2017.00119.5    

Recomonded Articles:

Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology (RJPT) is an international, peer-reviewed, multidisciplinary journal.... Read more >>>

RNI: CHHENG00387/33/1/2008-TC                     
DOI: 10.5958/0974-360X 

56th percentile
Powered by  Scopus

SCImago Journal & Country Rank

Recent Articles


Not Available